Evaluation of risk factors for development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in horses: 50 cases (1993–1998)

Brett A. Dolente Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Jill Beech Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Susan Lindborg Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Gary Smith Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in hospitalized horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100 control horses.

Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998 were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis. Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis during admission or hospitalization were chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, primary illness, and treatment were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis. For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 16 times those for a similar horse in the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4 times those for a similar horse without large intestinal disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 31 times those for a similar horse not receiving these medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that patient factors, including large intestinal disease, hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia, were associated with development of catheter-associated thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in hospitalized horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100 control horses.

Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998 were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis. Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis during admission or hospitalization were chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, primary illness, and treatment were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis. For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 16 times those for a similar horse in the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4 times those for a similar horse without large intestinal disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 31 times those for a similar horse not receiving these medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that patient factors, including large intestinal disease, hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia, were associated with development of catheter-associated thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)

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