Characterization of the use of antiemetic agents in dogs with parvoviral enteritis treated at a veterinary teaching hospital: 77 cases (1997–2000)

Nina L. Mantione Good Hope Animal Hospital, 6108 Carlisle Pike, Ste 120, Mechanicsburg, PA 17050.

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Cynthia M. Otto Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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 DVM, PhD, DACVECC

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the use of antiemetic agents in dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV)–associated enteritis in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—77 dogs with CPV-associated enteritis.

Procedure—Medical records of 560 dogs with confirmed CPV-associated enteritis that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included vaccination against CPV infection within the preceding 2 weeks, hospitalization for < 24 hours or removal from the hospital against advice, or an incomplete record. Signalment, duration of hospitalization, and daily antiemetic administrations were assessed; WBC counts and clinical findings were used to classify dogs as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Results—77 dogs were included in the study; 55 (71%) received antiemetics (53 received metoclopramide at least once). Seventy-one dogs survived, and 6 dogs died (all 6 received antiemetics). Compared with dogs that did not receive antiemetics, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for antiemetictreated dogs. Daily values of rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates did not predict administration of antiemetics or duration of hospitalization; however, compared with survivors, SIRS developed more frequently among nonsurvivors. Assessment of emetic events recorded hourly for 17 dogs indicated that antiemetic treatment did not control emesis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many dogs with CPV-associated enteritis had persistent vomiting despite antiemetic administration. The apparent difference in duration of hospitalization between antiemetic-treated dogs and other dogs may reflect a difference in disease severity between groups, although antiemetic-associated adverse events (eg, signs of depression, hypotension, and immune modulation) may prolong hospitalization. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1787–1793)

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the use of antiemetic agents in dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV)–associated enteritis in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—77 dogs with CPV-associated enteritis.

Procedure—Medical records of 560 dogs with confirmed CPV-associated enteritis that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included vaccination against CPV infection within the preceding 2 weeks, hospitalization for < 24 hours or removal from the hospital against advice, or an incomplete record. Signalment, duration of hospitalization, and daily antiemetic administrations were assessed; WBC counts and clinical findings were used to classify dogs as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Results—77 dogs were included in the study; 55 (71%) received antiemetics (53 received metoclopramide at least once). Seventy-one dogs survived, and 6 dogs died (all 6 received antiemetics). Compared with dogs that did not receive antiemetics, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for antiemetictreated dogs. Daily values of rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates did not predict administration of antiemetics or duration of hospitalization; however, compared with survivors, SIRS developed more frequently among nonsurvivors. Assessment of emetic events recorded hourly for 17 dogs indicated that antiemetic treatment did not control emesis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many dogs with CPV-associated enteritis had persistent vomiting despite antiemetic administration. The apparent difference in duration of hospitalization between antiemetic-treated dogs and other dogs may reflect a difference in disease severity between groups, although antiemetic-associated adverse events (eg, signs of depression, hypotension, and immune modulation) may prolong hospitalization. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1787–1793)

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