Intramuscular anesthesia of bonito and Pacific mackerel with ketamine and medetomidine and reversal of anesthesia with atipamezole

Thomas D. Williams Tuna Research and Conservation Center, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, CA 93940.

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Megan Rollins Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Oceanview Blvd, Pacific Grove, CA 93950.

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Barbara A. Block Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Oceanview Blvd, Pacific Grove, CA 93950.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic effects of ketamine and medetomidine in bonitos and mackerels and whether anesthesia could be reversed with atipamezole.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—43 bonitos (Sarda chiliensis) and 47 Pacific mackerels (Scomber japonica).

Procedure—28 bonitos were given doses of ketamine ranging from 1 to 8 mg/kg (0.5 to 3.6 mg/lb), IM, and doses of medetomidine ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/kg (0.1 to 0.7 mg/lb), IM (ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 2.5:1 to 20:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 1 or 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used. The remaining 15 bonitos were used to determine the anesthetic effects of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg (0.2 mg/lb). The mackerels were given ketamine at doses ranging from 11 to 533 mg/kg (5 to 242 mg/lb) and medetomidine at doses ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 mg/kg (0.1 to 4.1 mg/lb; ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 3:1 to 800:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used.

Results—IM administration of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg in bonitos and ketamine at a dose of 53 to 228 mg/kg (24 to 104 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.6 to 4.2 mg/kg (0.3 to 1.9 mg/lb) in mackerels was safe and effective. For both species, administration of atipamezole at a dose 5 times the dose of medetomidine reversed the anesthetic effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a combination of ketamine and medetomidine can safely be used for anesthesia of bonitos and mackerels and that anesthetic effects can be reversed with atipamezole. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:417–421)

Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic effects of ketamine and medetomidine in bonitos and mackerels and whether anesthesia could be reversed with atipamezole.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—43 bonitos (Sarda chiliensis) and 47 Pacific mackerels (Scomber japonica).

Procedure—28 bonitos were given doses of ketamine ranging from 1 to 8 mg/kg (0.5 to 3.6 mg/lb), IM, and doses of medetomidine ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/kg (0.1 to 0.7 mg/lb), IM (ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 2.5:1 to 20:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 1 or 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used. The remaining 15 bonitos were used to determine the anesthetic effects of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg (0.2 mg/lb). The mackerels were given ketamine at doses ranging from 11 to 533 mg/kg (5 to 242 mg/lb) and medetomidine at doses ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 mg/kg (0.1 to 4.1 mg/lb; ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 3:1 to 800:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used.

Results—IM administration of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg in bonitos and ketamine at a dose of 53 to 228 mg/kg (24 to 104 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.6 to 4.2 mg/kg (0.3 to 1.9 mg/lb) in mackerels was safe and effective. For both species, administration of atipamezole at a dose 5 times the dose of medetomidine reversed the anesthetic effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a combination of ketamine and medetomidine can safely be used for anesthesia of bonitos and mackerels and that anesthetic effects can be reversed with atipamezole. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:417–421)

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