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Evaluation of cisplatin combined with piroxicam for the treatment of oral malignant melanoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs

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  • 1 Purdue Comparative Oncology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, Iowa 52242.
  • | 3 Melbourne Veterinary Referral Centre, 70 Blackburn Rd, Glen Waverley, Victoria 3150, Australia.
  • | 4 Office of Research Programs, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 6 Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 7 Purdue Comparative Oncology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 8 Purdue Comparative Oncology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 9 Purdue Comparative Oncology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 10 Purdue Comparative Oncology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.

Design—Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—25 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone.

Results—11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:388–394)