Bacterial colonization of intravenous catheters in young dogs suspected to have parvoviral enteritis

Remo G. Lobetti Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.
Present address is Bryanston Veterinary Hospital, PO Box 67092, Bryanston, Sandton, 2021, South Africa.

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Kenneth E. Joubert Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

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Jackie Picard Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

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Johan Carstens Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

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Elize Pretorius Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of bacterial colonization of IV catheters among young dogs suspected to have parvoviral enteritis, to identify the organisms responsible for catheter colonization, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms that were obtained.

Design—Case series.

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedure—Catheters were aseptically removed when fluid therapy was discontinued, the catheter was replaced, or the dog died. The distal tip of the catheter was cut off, split open, and vortexed with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. The saline solution was plated on culture plates, which were then incubated and examined for bacterial growth every 24 hours for 72 hours. All bacteria cultured were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from 22 catheters. Most bacteria that were isolated were of gastrointestinal tract or environmental origin (Serratia odorifera, S liquefaciens, S marcescens, Acinobacter anitratus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp). Only 2 gram-positive organisms were isolated (Staphylococcus intermedius and Streptococcus spp). High percentages of organisms were resistant to penicillin, lincomycin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, and cephalexin. Percentages of organisms resistant to amikacin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, potentiated sulfonamides, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IV catheters may be colonized with bacteria in 22% of young dogs suspected to have parvovirus infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1321–1324).

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of bacterial colonization of IV catheters among young dogs suspected to have parvoviral enteritis, to identify the organisms responsible for catheter colonization, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms that were obtained.

Design—Case series.

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedure—Catheters were aseptically removed when fluid therapy was discontinued, the catheter was replaced, or the dog died. The distal tip of the catheter was cut off, split open, and vortexed with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. The saline solution was plated on culture plates, which were then incubated and examined for bacterial growth every 24 hours for 72 hours. All bacteria cultured were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from 22 catheters. Most bacteria that were isolated were of gastrointestinal tract or environmental origin (Serratia odorifera, S liquefaciens, S marcescens, Acinobacter anitratus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp). Only 2 gram-positive organisms were isolated (Staphylococcus intermedius and Streptococcus spp). High percentages of organisms were resistant to penicillin, lincomycin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, and cephalexin. Percentages of organisms resistant to amikacin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, potentiated sulfonamides, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IV catheters may be colonized with bacteria in 22% of young dogs suspected to have parvovirus infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1321–1324).

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