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Comparison of pulse administration versus once daily administration of itraconazole for the treatment of Malassezia pachydermatis dermatitis and otitis in dogs

Lauren R. PinchbeckDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Andrew HillierDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Joseph J. KowalskiDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Kenneth W. KwochkaDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical efficacy of pulse administration with itraconazole versus once daily administration for the treatment of cutaneous and otic M pachydermatis infection in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with itraconazole orally (n = 10/group), using a pulse administration regimen (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 2 consecutive days per week for 3 weeks) or once daily administration (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 21 days). No other treatment was permitted. On days 0 and 21, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was assessed, and samples were collected for cytologic examination and yeast culture. Cytology (sum of the mean number of yeast organisms per oil immersion field for affected sites) and culture (mean of the score for extent of yeast growth for samples from affected sites) scores were calculated.

Results—For dogs in both treatment groups, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was significantly decreased by day 21, but decrease in severity was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, skin cytology, skin culture, and ear culture scores were significantly decreased on day 21, compared with day 0, for both groups, but decreases were not significantly different between groups except that dogs in the pulse administration group had a significantly greater decrease in ear culture scores than did dogs in the daily administration group. However, when cytology scores only for ear samples were analyzed, day 21 score was not significantly decreased, compared with day 0 score, for either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that both pulse administration and once daily administration of itraconazole were efficacious in the treatment of M pachydermatis cutaneous infection in dogs. However, adjunctive treatment may be needed in dogs with M pachydermatis otitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1807–1812)

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical efficacy of pulse administration with itraconazole versus once daily administration for the treatment of cutaneous and otic M pachydermatis infection in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with itraconazole orally (n = 10/group), using a pulse administration regimen (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 2 consecutive days per week for 3 weeks) or once daily administration (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 21 days). No other treatment was permitted. On days 0 and 21, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was assessed, and samples were collected for cytologic examination and yeast culture. Cytology (sum of the mean number of yeast organisms per oil immersion field for affected sites) and culture (mean of the score for extent of yeast growth for samples from affected sites) scores were calculated.

Results—For dogs in both treatment groups, clinical severity of cutaneous and otic disease was significantly decreased by day 21, but decrease in severity was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, skin cytology, skin culture, and ear culture scores were significantly decreased on day 21, compared with day 0, for both groups, but decreases were not significantly different between groups except that dogs in the pulse administration group had a significantly greater decrease in ear culture scores than did dogs in the daily administration group. However, when cytology scores only for ear samples were analyzed, day 21 score was not significantly decreased, compared with day 0 score, for either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that both pulse administration and once daily administration of itraconazole were efficacious in the treatment of M pachydermatis cutaneous infection in dogs. However, adjunctive treatment may be needed in dogs with M pachydermatis otitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1807–1812)