Clinical outcome and associated diseases in dogs with leukocytosis and neutrophilia: 118 cases (1996–1998)

Michael D. Lucroy From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Bruce R. Madewell From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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 VMD, MS

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Objective

To describe diseases, prognosis, and clinical outcomes associated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in dogs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

118 dogs with leukocytosis and neutrophilia.

Procedure

Medical records from 1996 to 1998 were examined for dogs with WBC ≥ 50,000 cells/μl and neutrophilia ≥ 50%. Signalment, absolute and differential WBC counts, body temperature, clinical or pathologic diagnosis, duration and cost of hospitalization, and survival time were reviewed.

Results

Mean age was 7.7 years, WBC count was 65,795 cells/μl, and absolute neutrophil count was 53,798 cells/μI. Mean duration of hospitalization was 7.4 days and cost of hospitalization was $2,028.00. Forty (34%) dogs were febrile, and 73 (62%) dogs died. Overall median survival time was 17 days. Dogs with neoplasia or fever were more likely to die than dogs that were hospitalized or had systemic or local infections.

Clinical Implications

Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with high mortality rate and have prognostic value. Given the mean duration and cost of hospitalization, frank discussion with an owner at first recognition of leukocytosis and neutrophilia may be warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:805–807)

Objective

To describe diseases, prognosis, and clinical outcomes associated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in dogs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

118 dogs with leukocytosis and neutrophilia.

Procedure

Medical records from 1996 to 1998 were examined for dogs with WBC ≥ 50,000 cells/μl and neutrophilia ≥ 50%. Signalment, absolute and differential WBC counts, body temperature, clinical or pathologic diagnosis, duration and cost of hospitalization, and survival time were reviewed.

Results

Mean age was 7.7 years, WBC count was 65,795 cells/μl, and absolute neutrophil count was 53,798 cells/μI. Mean duration of hospitalization was 7.4 days and cost of hospitalization was $2,028.00. Forty (34%) dogs were febrile, and 73 (62%) dogs died. Overall median survival time was 17 days. Dogs with neoplasia or fever were more likely to die than dogs that were hospitalized or had systemic or local infections.

Clinical Implications

Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with high mortality rate and have prognostic value. Given the mean duration and cost of hospitalization, frank discussion with an owner at first recognition of leukocytosis and neutrophilia may be warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:805–807)

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