Systemic hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with diabetes mellitus

Andrea L. Struble From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Struble) and Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Feldman, Nelson), Population Health and Reproduction (Kass), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.

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Edward C. Feldman From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Struble) and Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Feldman, Nelson), Population Health and Reproduction (Kass), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.

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Richard W Nelson From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Struble) and Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Feldman, Nelson), Population Health and Reproduction (Kass), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.

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Philip H. Kass From the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (Struble) and Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Feldman, Nelson), Population Health and Reproduction (Kass), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.

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Objective—

To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing diabetes mellitus (DM) and to determine whether these abnormalities were related to age, sex, duration of DM, or degree of control of glycemia.

Design—

Case series and cohort study.

Animals—

Fifty dogs with naturally developing DM.

Procedures—

Blood pressure was measured in all 50 dogs. Thirty-eight dogs were evaluated once, and 12 were evaluated sequentially. Thirty-five were evaluated for proteinuria by determining protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (n = 35) or by electrophoresis of urine (33).

Results—

Hypertension was detected in 23 on the basis of a systolic pressure > 160 mm HG (12 dogs), a diastolic pressure > 100 mm HG (21), or a mean pressure > 120 mm HG (23). All dogs with systolic hypertension had concurrent diastolic and mean hypertension, and 19 of 21 dogs with diastolic hypertension had concurrent high mean pressure. Ten of 12 dogs reevaluated at subsequent visits had no change in blood pressure. Blood pressure remained consistent in 3 dogs tested at different times during the day on a single visit. Duration of DM and presence of proteinuria were significant predictors of hypertension. Seven of 35 (20%) dogs had an increased protein-to-creatinine ratio in their urine. Albumin concentration and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in urine from diabetic dogs, compared with healthy, nondiabetic dogs. Hypertension was associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

Clinical Implications—

Systemic hypertension and proteinuria may be common in diabetic dogs, but the clinical importance of these findings are, as yet, unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:822-825)

Objective—

To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing diabetes mellitus (DM) and to determine whether these abnormalities were related to age, sex, duration of DM, or degree of control of glycemia.

Design—

Case series and cohort study.

Animals—

Fifty dogs with naturally developing DM.

Procedures—

Blood pressure was measured in all 50 dogs. Thirty-eight dogs were evaluated once, and 12 were evaluated sequentially. Thirty-five were evaluated for proteinuria by determining protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (n = 35) or by electrophoresis of urine (33).

Results—

Hypertension was detected in 23 on the basis of a systolic pressure > 160 mm HG (12 dogs), a diastolic pressure > 100 mm HG (21), or a mean pressure > 120 mm HG (23). All dogs with systolic hypertension had concurrent diastolic and mean hypertension, and 19 of 21 dogs with diastolic hypertension had concurrent high mean pressure. Ten of 12 dogs reevaluated at subsequent visits had no change in blood pressure. Blood pressure remained consistent in 3 dogs tested at different times during the day on a single visit. Duration of DM and presence of proteinuria were significant predictors of hypertension. Seven of 35 (20%) dogs had an increased protein-to-creatinine ratio in their urine. Albumin concentration and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in urine from diabetic dogs, compared with healthy, nondiabetic dogs. Hypertension was associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

Clinical Implications—

Systemic hypertension and proteinuria may be common in diabetic dogs, but the clinical importance of these findings are, as yet, unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:822-825)

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