Perioperative management and mortality rates of dogs undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada

Paula F. Moon From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 (Moon, Erb, Ludders, Gleed), and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734 (Pascoe).

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Hollis N. Erb From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 (Moon, Erb, Ludders, Gleed), and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734 (Pascoe).

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John W. Ludders From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 (Moon, Erb, Ludders, Gleed), and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734 (Pascoe).

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Robin D. Gleed From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 (Moon, Erb, Ludders, Gleed), and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734 (Pascoe).

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Peter J. Pascoe From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 (Moon, Erb, Ludders, Gleed), and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734 (Pascoe).

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Objective

To describe dogs undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada, to determine perioperative management, and to calculate survival proportions.

Design

Multicenter prospective case series.

Animals

3,908 puppies from 808 dams.

Results

Survival rates immediately, 2 hours, and 7 days after delivery were 92, 87, and 80%, respectively, for puppies delivered by cesarean section (n = 3,410) and 86, 83, and 75%, respectively, for puppies born naturally (498). For 614 of 807 (76%) litters, all puppies delivered by cesarean section were born alive. Maternal mortality rate was 1 % (n = 9). Of 776 surgeries, 453 (58%) were done on an emergency basis. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent emergency surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Boxer, Corgis, and Chihuahua. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent elective surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Mastiff, Golden Retriever, and Yorkshire Terrier. The most common methods of inducing and maintaining anesthesia were administration of isoflurane for induction and maintenance (n = 266; 34%) and administration of propofol for induction followed by administration of isoflurane for maintenance (237; 30%).

Clinical Implications

Mortality rates of dams and puppies undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada are low. Knowledge of mortality rates should be useful to veterinarians when advising clients on the likelihood of puppy and dam survival associated with cesarean section. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:365-369)

Objective

To describe dogs undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada, to determine perioperative management, and to calculate survival proportions.

Design

Multicenter prospective case series.

Animals

3,908 puppies from 808 dams.

Results

Survival rates immediately, 2 hours, and 7 days after delivery were 92, 87, and 80%, respectively, for puppies delivered by cesarean section (n = 3,410) and 86, 83, and 75%, respectively, for puppies born naturally (498). For 614 of 807 (76%) litters, all puppies delivered by cesarean section were born alive. Maternal mortality rate was 1 % (n = 9). Of 776 surgeries, 453 (58%) were done on an emergency basis. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent emergency surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Boxer, Corgis, and Chihuahua. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent elective surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Mastiff, Golden Retriever, and Yorkshire Terrier. The most common methods of inducing and maintaining anesthesia were administration of isoflurane for induction and maintenance (n = 266; 34%) and administration of propofol for induction followed by administration of isoflurane for maintenance (237; 30%).

Clinical Implications

Mortality rates of dams and puppies undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada are low. Knowledge of mortality rates should be useful to veterinarians when advising clients on the likelihood of puppy and dam survival associated with cesarean section. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:365-369)

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