Human contact with bait containing vaccine for control of rabies in wildlife

Michael W. McGuill From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Silvia M. Kreindel From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Alfred DeMaria Jr. From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Alison H. Robbins From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Steven Rowell From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Cathleen A. Hanlon From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Charles E. Rupprecht From the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South St, Boston, MA 02130 (McGuill, Kreindel, DeMaria); Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536 (Robbins, Rowell); and the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30333 (Hanlon, Rupprecht).

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Objective

To document the number of human contacts with bait containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, to evaluate factors that might affect human contact with bait-vaccine units, and to summarize adverse reactions in people after contact with vaccine.

Design

Retrospective 4-year survey of directors of 6 oral rabies vaccination programs.

Sample Population

Human residents in areas of vaccination programs.

Procedure

Data were collected from report forms and telephone conversations with directors of oral rabies vaccination programs in Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Texas, and New York. Data collected included information regarding human contact with bait and vaccine, sex and age of person involved in contact, human population density, bait density, type of labeling used on bait, and other factors.

Results

Human contact with bait was more likely in areas where bait had white labels (vs lettering in black ink) and in areas with high human population densities. Directors of all programs reported that human contact with bait-vaccine units was minimal. Adverse reactions in exposed people were not reported. On the basis of these findings, concerns about V-RG vaccine posing a substantial public health risk remain unfounded.

Clinical Implications

Directors of oral rabies vaccination programs should systematically collect information about exposures and potential factors affecting exposure of people to bait-vaccine units. People with substantial exposure to V-RG vaccine should be evaluated for immune status and any resulting symptoms should be documented and monitored. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1413-1417)

Objective

To document the number of human contacts with bait containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, to evaluate factors that might affect human contact with bait-vaccine units, and to summarize adverse reactions in people after contact with vaccine.

Design

Retrospective 4-year survey of directors of 6 oral rabies vaccination programs.

Sample Population

Human residents in areas of vaccination programs.

Procedure

Data were collected from report forms and telephone conversations with directors of oral rabies vaccination programs in Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Texas, and New York. Data collected included information regarding human contact with bait and vaccine, sex and age of person involved in contact, human population density, bait density, type of labeling used on bait, and other factors.

Results

Human contact with bait was more likely in areas where bait had white labels (vs lettering in black ink) and in areas with high human population densities. Directors of all programs reported that human contact with bait-vaccine units was minimal. Adverse reactions in exposed people were not reported. On the basis of these findings, concerns about V-RG vaccine posing a substantial public health risk remain unfounded.

Clinical Implications

Directors of oral rabies vaccination programs should systematically collect information about exposures and potential factors affecting exposure of people to bait-vaccine units. People with substantial exposure to V-RG vaccine should be evaluated for immune status and any resulting symptoms should be documented and monitored. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1413-1417)

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