Hepatozoonosis in dogs: 22 cases (1989-1994)

Douglass K. Macintire From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Douglass K. Macintire in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Nancy Vincent-Johnson From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Nancy Vincent-Johnson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Allen R. Dillon From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Allen R. Dillon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Byron Blagburn From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Byron Blagburn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
David Lindsay From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by David Lindsay in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Elizabeth M. Whitley From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Elizabeth M. Whitley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
, and
Catherine Banfield From the Departments of Small Animal Surgery and Medicine (Macintire, Vincent-Johnson, Dillon), Pathobiology (Blagburn, Lindsay, Whitley), and Radiology (Banfield), College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849-5523.

Search for other papers by Catherine Banfield in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS

Click on author name to view affiliation information

Objective—

To document hepatozoonosis in dogs from Alabama and Georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

22 dogs in which Hepatozoon canis was identified by microscopic examination of skeletal muscle.

Procedure—

We reviewed medical records of all dogs with a definitive diagnosis of hepatozoonosis that were referred to the Auburn University Small Animal Clinic between 1989 and 1994.

Results—

Diagnoses were confirmed by microscopic identification of H canis schizont or merozoite stages in skeletal muscle. The gametocyte stage was not detected in smears of blood obtained from a peripheral vein, buffy-coat smears, or bone marrow evaluation. Common clinical signs included fever, cachexia, ocular discharge, pain, stiffness, and paresis. Laboratory abnormalities included marked leukocytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, mild anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Periosteal bone proliferation was evident radiographically in 18 of 22 dogs. Renal lesions included amyloidosis (1 dog), interstitial nephritis (3), and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (4). Treatment with the anticoccidial drug toltrazuril, despite an initial favorable response, failed to prevent relapse in all but 3 of 21 treated dogs. Mean survival time was 12.6 ± 2.2 months, with a mean time of remission before recurrence of clinical signs of 6 months.

Clinical Implications—

H canis infection in dogs can be associated with a distinct clinical syndrome that involves chronic myositis, debilitation, and death. The dogs of this report represent the first substantial number of domestic dogs naturally infected with H canis in the United States outside of the Texas Gulf Coast. Hepatozoon canis appears to be a serious pathogen in the United States that is becoming more widespread geographically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:916–922)

Objective—

To document hepatozoonosis in dogs from Alabama and Georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

22 dogs in which Hepatozoon canis was identified by microscopic examination of skeletal muscle.

Procedure—

We reviewed medical records of all dogs with a definitive diagnosis of hepatozoonosis that were referred to the Auburn University Small Animal Clinic between 1989 and 1994.

Results—

Diagnoses were confirmed by microscopic identification of H canis schizont or merozoite stages in skeletal muscle. The gametocyte stage was not detected in smears of blood obtained from a peripheral vein, buffy-coat smears, or bone marrow evaluation. Common clinical signs included fever, cachexia, ocular discharge, pain, stiffness, and paresis. Laboratory abnormalities included marked leukocytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, mild anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Periosteal bone proliferation was evident radiographically in 18 of 22 dogs. Renal lesions included amyloidosis (1 dog), interstitial nephritis (3), and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (4). Treatment with the anticoccidial drug toltrazuril, despite an initial favorable response, failed to prevent relapse in all but 3 of 21 treated dogs. Mean survival time was 12.6 ± 2.2 months, with a mean time of remission before recurrence of clinical signs of 6 months.

Clinical Implications—

H canis infection in dogs can be associated with a distinct clinical syndrome that involves chronic myositis, debilitation, and death. The dogs of this report represent the first substantial number of domestic dogs naturally infected with H canis in the United States outside of the Texas Gulf Coast. Hepatozoon canis appears to be a serious pathogen in the United States that is becoming more widespread geographically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:916–922)

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 604 604 178
PDF Downloads 160 160 38
Advertisement