Three methods of oxytocin-induced parturition and their effects on foals

Margo L. Macpherson From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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M. Keith Chaffin From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Gwendolyn L. Carroll From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Jennifer Jorgensen From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Caroline Arrott From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Dickson D. Varner From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Terry L. Blanchard From the Departments of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (Macpherson, Chaffin, Jorgensen, Arrott, Varner, and Blanchard) and Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (Carroll), College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Objective

To compare effects of 3 oxytocin-based induction techniques on fetal and neonatal foals.

Design

Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals

16 pregnant mares.

Procedure

Parturition was induced in mares by use of 3 treatments: group 1, 75 U of oxytocin, IM; group 2, 15 U of oxytocin, IM, q 15 minutes, for a maximum of 75 U; group 3, 75 U of oxytocin in 1 L of 0.9% NaCI solution, IV (1 U/min), for a maximum of 75 U. Blood gas values and indices of vitality were measured in foals, and variables describing parturition were measured in mares.

Results

Group-3 mares had a shorter interval from administration of oxytocin to rupture of the chorioallantois (OTCA) than group-2 mares. More foals were abnormal when the interval from oxytocin administration to delivery of the foal (OTDE) was ≥ 60 minutes, Arterial blood gas values, measurements of vitality, and plasma cortisol concentrations did not differ among foals in various treatment groups. Increased interval for OTCA and OTDE resulted in higher neonatal Paco2, and a longer interval for OTCA resulted in lower arterial pH. Time required for birth was shorter in mares with a dilated cervix. More abnormal foals than normal foals were delivered after premature placental separation or dystocia. Abnormal foals took longer to stand and suckle than normal foals. Interval from delivery to suckling was positively correlated with OTCA, OTDE, and Paco2.

Clinical Implications

Method of oxytocin-induced parturition did not impact neonatal outcome. Interval from induction until parturition, degree of cervical dilatation, and intrapartum complications influenced induction success. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:799–803

Objective

To compare effects of 3 oxytocin-based induction techniques on fetal and neonatal foals.

Design

Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals

16 pregnant mares.

Procedure

Parturition was induced in mares by use of 3 treatments: group 1, 75 U of oxytocin, IM; group 2, 15 U of oxytocin, IM, q 15 minutes, for a maximum of 75 U; group 3, 75 U of oxytocin in 1 L of 0.9% NaCI solution, IV (1 U/min), for a maximum of 75 U. Blood gas values and indices of vitality were measured in foals, and variables describing parturition were measured in mares.

Results

Group-3 mares had a shorter interval from administration of oxytocin to rupture of the chorioallantois (OTCA) than group-2 mares. More foals were abnormal when the interval from oxytocin administration to delivery of the foal (OTDE) was ≥ 60 minutes, Arterial blood gas values, measurements of vitality, and plasma cortisol concentrations did not differ among foals in various treatment groups. Increased interval for OTCA and OTDE resulted in higher neonatal Paco2, and a longer interval for OTCA resulted in lower arterial pH. Time required for birth was shorter in mares with a dilated cervix. More abnormal foals than normal foals were delivered after premature placental separation or dystocia. Abnormal foals took longer to stand and suckle than normal foals. Interval from delivery to suckling was positively correlated with OTCA, OTDE, and Paco2.

Clinical Implications

Method of oxytocin-induced parturition did not impact neonatal outcome. Interval from induction until parturition, degree of cervical dilatation, and intrapartum complications influenced induction success. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:799–803

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