Diagnostic evaluation of cats with seizure disorders: 30 cases (1991-1993)

Andr9e D. Quesnel From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Quesnel, Parent, McDonell) and Pathology (Percy, Lumsden), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1.

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 DVM, DVSc
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Joane M. Parent From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Quesnel, Parent, McDonell) and Pathology (Percy, Lumsden), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1.

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Wayne McDonell From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Quesnel, Parent, McDonell) and Pathology (Percy, Lumsden), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1.

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Dean Percy From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Quesnel, Parent, McDonell) and Pathology (Percy, Lumsden), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1.

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John H. Lumsden From the Departments of Clinical Studies (Quesnel, Parent, McDonell) and Pathology (Percy, Lumsden), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1.

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Objective

To investigate causes of seizure disorders in cats.

Design

Case series.

Animals

30 cats referred to the Ontario Veterinary College for recurrent seizures.

Procedures

Signalment and seizure pattern were evaluated. Diagnostic procedures included physical, neurologic, and fundic examinations; CBC; serum biochemical analyses, including determination of pre- and postprandial bile acid concentrations; urinalysis; serologic assays for FeL V and feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis, and Toxoplasma gondii; magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; CSF analysis; and neuropathologic examination of euthanatlzed cats and of surgical biopsy specimens.

Results

All cats were found to have structural brain diseases; nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis of unknown cause was found in 14 cats, feline ischemic encephalopathy in 6, meningioma in 2, polycythemia vera with secondary brain lesions in 2, posttraumatic epilepsy in 1, and cerebral abscess in 1. A definitive diagnosis could not be reached in 4 cats.

Clinical Implications

The most common cause of seizures in cats is structural brain disease. Structural brain lesions often can be detected on the basis of seizure pattern and results of neurologic examination. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain imaging are essential to determine the cause of these lesions. Causes of seizures found in the cats of this study differ from those reported to be the most common. Nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis of unknown origin appears to be a frequent cause of neurologic disorders in cats, including seizure disorders. Feline ischemic encephalopathy appears to exist in a milder form than the classic disease and may be a common cause of seizures in cats. (J Am Vel Med Assoc 1997;210:65–71)

Objective

To investigate causes of seizure disorders in cats.

Design

Case series.

Animals

30 cats referred to the Ontario Veterinary College for recurrent seizures.

Procedures

Signalment and seizure pattern were evaluated. Diagnostic procedures included physical, neurologic, and fundic examinations; CBC; serum biochemical analyses, including determination of pre- and postprandial bile acid concentrations; urinalysis; serologic assays for FeL V and feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis, and Toxoplasma gondii; magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; CSF analysis; and neuropathologic examination of euthanatlzed cats and of surgical biopsy specimens.

Results

All cats were found to have structural brain diseases; nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis of unknown cause was found in 14 cats, feline ischemic encephalopathy in 6, meningioma in 2, polycythemia vera with secondary brain lesions in 2, posttraumatic epilepsy in 1, and cerebral abscess in 1. A definitive diagnosis could not be reached in 4 cats.

Clinical Implications

The most common cause of seizures in cats is structural brain disease. Structural brain lesions often can be detected on the basis of seizure pattern and results of neurologic examination. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain imaging are essential to determine the cause of these lesions. Causes of seizures found in the cats of this study differ from those reported to be the most common. Nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis of unknown origin appears to be a frequent cause of neurologic disorders in cats, including seizure disorders. Feline ischemic encephalopathy appears to exist in a milder form than the classic disease and may be a common cause of seizures in cats. (J Am Vel Med Assoc 1997;210:65–71)

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