Epidural administration of bupivacaine, morphine, or their combination for postoperative analgesia in dogs

Paula K. Hendrix From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hendrix, Raffe, Robinson, Randall) and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine (Felice), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

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 DVM, PhD
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Marc R. Raffe From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hendrix, Raffe, Robinson, Randall) and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine (Felice), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

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 DVM, MS
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Elaine P. Robinson From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hendrix, Raffe, Robinson, Randall) and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine (Felice), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

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 BVetMed, MVSc
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Lawrence J. Felice From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hendrix, Raffe, Robinson, Randall) and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine (Felice), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Debbie A. Randall From the Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (Hendrix, Raffe, Robinson, Randall) and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine (Felice), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Objective

To compare the analgesic effects of epidural administration of morphine (MOR), bupivacaine hydrochloride (BUP), their combination (COM), and 0.9% sterile NaCl solution (SAL) in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgeries.

Design

Blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Animals

41 healthy dogs admitted for elective orthopedic surgeries involving the pelvis or hind limbs.

Procedure

Analgesic and control agents were administered postoperatively prior to recovery from isoflurane anesthesia. Ten dogs received MOR, 0.1 mg/ kg of body weight; 10 received BUP, 0.5%, 1 ml/10- cm distance from the occipital protuberance to the lumbosacral space; 11 received COM; and 10 received SAL epidurally. Dogs were monitored for 24 hours after epidural injection for pain score, heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent, total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required, and plasma concentrations of cortisol, MOR, and BUP.

Results

Pain scores were significantly lower in dogs in the COM and BUP groups than in dogs in the SAL group. Pain scores also were significantly lower in dogs in the COM group than in dogs in the MOR group. Time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent was longer for dogs in the COM group than for dogs in the MOR and SAL groups. Total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required was lower for dogs in the BUP and COM groups than for dogs in the SAL group.

Clinical Implications

Postoperative epidural administration of COM or BUP alone provides longerlasting analgesia, compared with MOR or SAL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:698-607)

Objective

To compare the analgesic effects of epidural administration of morphine (MOR), bupivacaine hydrochloride (BUP), their combination (COM), and 0.9% sterile NaCl solution (SAL) in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgeries.

Design

Blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Animals

41 healthy dogs admitted for elective orthopedic surgeries involving the pelvis or hind limbs.

Procedure

Analgesic and control agents were administered postoperatively prior to recovery from isoflurane anesthesia. Ten dogs received MOR, 0.1 mg/ kg of body weight; 10 received BUP, 0.5%, 1 ml/10- cm distance from the occipital protuberance to the lumbosacral space; 11 received COM; and 10 received SAL epidurally. Dogs were monitored for 24 hours after epidural injection for pain score, heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent, total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required, and plasma concentrations of cortisol, MOR, and BUP.

Results

Pain scores were significantly lower in dogs in the COM and BUP groups than in dogs in the SAL group. Pain scores also were significantly lower in dogs in the COM group than in dogs in the MOR group. Time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent was longer for dogs in the COM group than for dogs in the MOR and SAL groups. Total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required was lower for dogs in the BUP and COM groups than for dogs in the SAL group.

Clinical Implications

Postoperative epidural administration of COM or BUP alone provides longerlasting analgesia, compared with MOR or SAL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:698-607)

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