Respiratory function and treatment in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 19 cases (1985-1993)

Chantal Parent From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department ol Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Lesley G. King From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department ol Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Thomas J. Van Winkle From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department ol Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Lynn M. Walker From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department ol Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Objective

To characterize respiratory function and treatment in dogs with findings compatible with those of human adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to evaluate the application in dogs of clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS.

Design

Retrospective review of medical records.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Results

Arterial blood pH was 7.30 ± 0.059 (mean ± SD). Nine dogs had metabolic acidosis. In nonmechanically ventilated dogs, Paco2 was 15.0 to 54.9 mm of Hg. Respiratory acidosis developed in 2 mechanically ventilated dogs. Hypoxemia was observed in 4 of 5 dogs breathing room air. In 4 mechanically ventilated dogs, oxygenation was inadequate, despite use of > 60% inspired O2 and positive end-expiratory pressure in 3 dogs. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradients were widened in 4 dogs breathing room air and in 6 dogs ventilated with 100% O2.

Ten dogs were mechanically ventilated; ventilatory rate was 18 to 60 breaths/min. Tidal volume was 12 ± 3.8 ml/kg of body weight in 4 dogs, minute ventilation > 400 ml/kg/min in 2 dogs, and peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O in 6 dogs. Positive end-expiratory pressure was used in 8 dogs. Pneumothorax was detected in 5 ventilated dogs.

Human clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS were fulfilled in 7 dogs. Fluid treatment consisted of IV crystalloids and synthetic colloids. Drugs most often administered were antibiotics and loop diuretics.

Clinical Implications

Human clinical criteria for identification of ARDS may be helpful in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1428-1433)

Objective

To characterize respiratory function and treatment in dogs with findings compatible with those of human adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to evaluate the application in dogs of clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS.

Design

Retrospective review of medical records.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Results

Arterial blood pH was 7.30 ± 0.059 (mean ± SD). Nine dogs had metabolic acidosis. In nonmechanically ventilated dogs, Paco2 was 15.0 to 54.9 mm of Hg. Respiratory acidosis developed in 2 mechanically ventilated dogs. Hypoxemia was observed in 4 of 5 dogs breathing room air. In 4 mechanically ventilated dogs, oxygenation was inadequate, despite use of > 60% inspired O2 and positive end-expiratory pressure in 3 dogs. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradients were widened in 4 dogs breathing room air and in 6 dogs ventilated with 100% O2.

Ten dogs were mechanically ventilated; ventilatory rate was 18 to 60 breaths/min. Tidal volume was 12 ± 3.8 ml/kg of body weight in 4 dogs, minute ventilation > 400 ml/kg/min in 2 dogs, and peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O in 6 dogs. Positive end-expiratory pressure was used in 8 dogs. Pneumothorax was detected in 5 ventilated dogs.

Human clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS were fulfilled in 7 dogs. Fluid treatment consisted of IV crystalloids and synthetic colloids. Drugs most often administered were antibiotics and loop diuretics.

Clinical Implications

Human clinical criteria for identification of ARDS may be helpful in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1428-1433)

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