Clinical and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 19 cases (1985-1993)

Chantal Parent From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Lesley G. King From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Lynn M. Walker From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Thomas J. Van Winkle From the Center for Veterinary Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies (Parent, King, Walker), and the Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology (Van Winkle), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Objective

To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings from dogs with histologic pulmonary lesions consistent with human adult respiratory distress syndrome and to identify potential risk factors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings at admission, and thoracic radiographic and necropsy findings were recorded.

Results

The most common clinical sign was dyspnea. Respiratory rate ranged from 36 to 140 breaths/min, and abnormal breathing patterns were detected. Crackles were auscultated in 7 dogs. Severe diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltrates were observed on thoracic radiography in 9 dogs shortly after arrival and developed later in 4 dogs. Four dogs were leukopenic and neutropenic. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was diagnosed in 2 dogs, and hypoalbuminemia was found in 8 dogs. Respiratory status deteriorated rapidly in all dogs, and 10 dogs were mechanically ventilated. Death was attributed solely to respiratory failure in 8 dogs. In the other 11 dogs, severe lesions in nonpulmonary organs, sepsis, or both may have contributed to death. The most common associated conditions that may have contributed to acute respiratory failure were microbial pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration pneumonia, and shock, with more than 1 factor found in 11 of 19 dogs.

Clinical Implications

The index of suspicion for acute respiratory distress syndrome should be high in dogs with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory distress that rapidly progresses to failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1419-1427)

Objective

To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings from dogs with histologic pulmonary lesions consistent with human adult respiratory distress syndrome and to identify potential risk factors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings at admission, and thoracic radiographic and necropsy findings were recorded.

Results

The most common clinical sign was dyspnea. Respiratory rate ranged from 36 to 140 breaths/min, and abnormal breathing patterns were detected. Crackles were auscultated in 7 dogs. Severe diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltrates were observed on thoracic radiography in 9 dogs shortly after arrival and developed later in 4 dogs. Four dogs were leukopenic and neutropenic. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was diagnosed in 2 dogs, and hypoalbuminemia was found in 8 dogs. Respiratory status deteriorated rapidly in all dogs, and 10 dogs were mechanically ventilated. Death was attributed solely to respiratory failure in 8 dogs. In the other 11 dogs, severe lesions in nonpulmonary organs, sepsis, or both may have contributed to death. The most common associated conditions that may have contributed to acute respiratory failure were microbial pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration pneumonia, and shock, with more than 1 factor found in 11 of 19 dogs.

Clinical Implications

The index of suspicion for acute respiratory distress syndrome should be high in dogs with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory distress that rapidly progresses to failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1419-1427)

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