Fatal musculoskeletal injuries incurred during racing and training in Thoroughbreds

Leah Estberg From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Susan M. Stover From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Ian A. Gardner From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Bill J. Johnson From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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James T. Case From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Alex Ardans From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Deryck H. Read From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Mark L. Anderson From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Bradd C. Barr From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Barbara M. Daft From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Hailu Kinde From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Janet Moore From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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James Stoltz From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Leslie W. Woods From the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System (Johnson, Case, Ardans, Read, Anderson, Barr, Daft, Kinde, Moore, Stoltz, Woods), and the Departments of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology (Stover) and Medicine and Epidemiology (Estberg, Gardner), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Objective

To characterize and contrast data from Thoroughbreds that incurred a fatal musculoskeletal injury ( fmi; injury resulting in death or euthanasia) during racing or training and data from all California race entrants during a 9-month period in 1991.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

Thoroughbreds that incurred a fmi during racing or training at a California race-meet and all California race entrants from January through June and October through December 1991.

Procedure

Age and sex were compared with χ2 and Fisher's exact tests among horses fatally injured while racing and training. A log-linear model was fit to assess the relationship between race-meet and age and sex of California race entrants. Incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated per 1,000 race entrants, and the relationship between the occurrence of fmi during racing with race-meet, age, and sex was evaluated by logistic regression.

Results

Injury type and sex-specific age distributions differed among the horses fatally injured during racing and training. Age and sex distributions of the race entrants were not independent and varied among race-meets. Overall incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated at 1.7/1,000 race entrants. Risk of racing fmi in male horses was about twofold that in female horses, and in 4-year-olds was twofold that in 3-year-olds.

Clinical Implications

Age- and sex-related differences in risk of incurring a fmi during racing should be considered when comparing fatal injury rates among race-meets.

Objective

To characterize and contrast data from Thoroughbreds that incurred a fatal musculoskeletal injury ( fmi; injury resulting in death or euthanasia) during racing or training and data from all California race entrants during a 9-month period in 1991.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

Thoroughbreds that incurred a fmi during racing or training at a California race-meet and all California race entrants from January through June and October through December 1991.

Procedure

Age and sex were compared with χ2 and Fisher's exact tests among horses fatally injured while racing and training. A log-linear model was fit to assess the relationship between race-meet and age and sex of California race entrants. Incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated per 1,000 race entrants, and the relationship between the occurrence of fmi during racing with race-meet, age, and sex was evaluated by logistic regression.

Results

Injury type and sex-specific age distributions differed among the horses fatally injured during racing and training. Age and sex distributions of the race entrants were not independent and varied among race-meets. Overall incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated at 1.7/1,000 race entrants. Risk of racing fmi in male horses was about twofold that in female horses, and in 4-year-olds was twofold that in 3-year-olds.

Clinical Implications

Age- and sex-related differences in risk of incurring a fmi during racing should be considered when comparing fatal injury rates among race-meets.

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