Evaluation of abortions in cattle attributable to neosporosis in selected dairy herds in California

Mark L. Anderson From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Charles W. Palmer From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Mark C. Thurmond From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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John P. Picanso From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Pat C. Blanchard From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Richard E. Breitmeyer From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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A. W. Layton From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Milton McAllister From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Barbara Daft From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Hailu Kinde From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Deryck H. Read From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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J. P. Dubey From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Patricia A. Conrad From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Bradd C. Barr From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Anderson, Blanchard, Layton, McAllister, Daft, Kinde, Read, Barr), and the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology (Thurmond, Picanso), and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology (Conrad), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; California Department of Food and Agriculture (Palmer, Breitmeyer), 1220 N St, Sacramento, CA 94271; and the Parasite Biology and Epidemiology Laboratory (Dubey), Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705.

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Objective—

To estimate the minimum rate of abortion attributable to infection with Neospora sp in selected California dairy herds.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

Twenty-six dairy herds containing 19,708 cows were studied. Fourteen herds had a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and 12 were herds in which neosporosis had not been identified as a cause of abortions.

Procedure—

During a 1-year period, all available aborted fetuses were submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to determine the cause of abortion. Reproductive records of cows that aborted were reviewed.

Results—

Neospora sp infection was the major cause of abortion identified (113/266 abortions, 42.5%). The majority (232/266, 87.2%) of the aborted fetuses were submitted from herds with a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and Neospora sp infection was identified as the causative agent in 101 of 232 (43.5%) of the abortions from these herds. Fewer aborted fetuses were submitted from the 12 herds that did not have a history of abortion attributable to Neospora sp; however, neosporosis was confirmed as a cause of abortion in 6 of these 12 herds and was identified as the causative agent in 12 of 34 (35.3%) abortions from these herds. The disease was widespread throughout the state (19/26 herds in our study). Available reproductive histories of cows that had abortions attributed to neosporosis were evaluated, and 4 cows were identified that twice aborted Neospora-in-fected fetuses.

Objective—

To estimate the minimum rate of abortion attributable to infection with Neospora sp in selected California dairy herds.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

Twenty-six dairy herds containing 19,708 cows were studied. Fourteen herds had a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and 12 were herds in which neosporosis had not been identified as a cause of abortions.

Procedure—

During a 1-year period, all available aborted fetuses were submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to determine the cause of abortion. Reproductive records of cows that aborted were reviewed.

Results—

Neospora sp infection was the major cause of abortion identified (113/266 abortions, 42.5%). The majority (232/266, 87.2%) of the aborted fetuses were submitted from herds with a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and Neospora sp infection was identified as the causative agent in 101 of 232 (43.5%) of the abortions from these herds. Fewer aborted fetuses were submitted from the 12 herds that did not have a history of abortion attributable to Neospora sp; however, neosporosis was confirmed as a cause of abortion in 6 of these 12 herds and was identified as the causative agent in 12 of 34 (35.3%) abortions from these herds. The disease was widespread throughout the state (19/26 herds in our study). Available reproductive histories of cows that had abortions attributed to neosporosis were evaluated, and 4 cows were identified that twice aborted Neospora-in-fected fetuses.

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