Prevalence and factors associated with development of laminitis in horses with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis: 33 cases (1985–1991)

Noah D. Cohen From the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475 (Cohen, Parson, Carter), and Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (Seahorn).

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Ernest M. Parson From the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475 (Cohen, Parson, Carter), and Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (Seahorn).

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Thomas L. Seahorn From the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475 (Cohen, Parson, Carter), and Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (Seahorn).

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G. Kent Carter From the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475 (Cohen, Parson, Carter), and Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (Seahorn).

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Summary

Medical records of 116 horses admitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between Jan 1, 1984 and Dec 31, 1991 with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj) were reviewed. The prevalence of laminitis was 28.4% (33/116; 95% confidence interval: 20.2 to 36.6%). The prevalence of dpj and DPJ-associated laminitis did not appear to vary significantly by year during the study period. Anamnesis, physical examination, clinicopathologic data, and initial treatment recorded at the time of admission were reviewed to determine risk factors associated with development of laminitis associated with dpj. A trend of increasing prevalence of laminitis with increasing weight was observed. Using a multiple logistic regression model, horses weighing ≥ 550 kg were approximately twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses weighing < 550 kg (P = 0.048). Horses with hemorrhagic reflux observed at the time of admission were nearly twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses without hemorrhagic reflux (P = 0.022).

Treatments administered prior to admission or at our clinic did not significantly affect development of laminitis, except for administration of heparin to prevent laminitis. Of 33 horses that developed laminitis associated with dpj, 2 had laminitis at the time of admission. These 2 horses were excluded from analysis of the effects of heparin administered as prophylaxis for laminitis; neither horse was treated with heparin. The proportion of horses that developed laminitis among horses that received heparin (0.0%; 0/12) was significantly (P = 0.018) less than that among horses that did not receive heparin (29.8%; 31/104). Because of the small number of horses that received heparin and the retrospective design of this study, the clinical importance of this association could not be determined.

Summary

Medical records of 116 horses admitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between Jan 1, 1984 and Dec 31, 1991 with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj) were reviewed. The prevalence of laminitis was 28.4% (33/116; 95% confidence interval: 20.2 to 36.6%). The prevalence of dpj and DPJ-associated laminitis did not appear to vary significantly by year during the study period. Anamnesis, physical examination, clinicopathologic data, and initial treatment recorded at the time of admission were reviewed to determine risk factors associated with development of laminitis associated with dpj. A trend of increasing prevalence of laminitis with increasing weight was observed. Using a multiple logistic regression model, horses weighing ≥ 550 kg were approximately twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses weighing < 550 kg (P = 0.048). Horses with hemorrhagic reflux observed at the time of admission were nearly twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses without hemorrhagic reflux (P = 0.022).

Treatments administered prior to admission or at our clinic did not significantly affect development of laminitis, except for administration of heparin to prevent laminitis. Of 33 horses that developed laminitis associated with dpj, 2 had laminitis at the time of admission. These 2 horses were excluded from analysis of the effects of heparin administered as prophylaxis for laminitis; neither horse was treated with heparin. The proportion of horses that developed laminitis among horses that received heparin (0.0%; 0/12) was significantly (P = 0.018) less than that among horses that did not receive heparin (29.8%; 31/104). Because of the small number of horses that received heparin and the retrospective design of this study, the clinical importance of this association could not be determined.

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