Excretion of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in semen after experimentally induced infection in boars

Sabrina L. Swenson From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Howard T. Hill From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Jeff J. Zimmerman From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Lawrence E. Evans From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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John G. Landgraf From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Robert W. Wills From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Thomas P. Sanderson From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Michael J. McGinley From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Andy K. Brevik From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Dan K. Ciszewski From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Merwin L. Frey From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Swenson, Hill, Zimmerman, Wills, Sanderson) and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Evans), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; Miles Inc, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 (McGinley, Brevik, Ciszewski); and Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010 (Landgraf, Frey).

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Summary

Four boars intranasally inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus were monitored for 56 days after exposure for changes in semen characteristics and for the presence of virus in the semen. Clinically, 2 of 4 boars had mild respiratory signs of 1 day's duration after infection. Changes in appetite, behavior, or libido were not detected. All boars seroconverted on the indirect fluorescent antibody and serum virus neutralization tests by day 14 after inoculation. Virus was isolated from serum between days 7 and 14 after inoculation. During the monitoring period, semen volume decreased and pH correspondingly increased; however, this change began 7 to 10 days prior to infection. Differences in sperm morphologic features, concentration, or motility between the preinfection and postinfection samples were not observed. The PRRS virus was detected in semen at the first collection in each of the 4 boars (ie, 3 or 5 days after challenge exposure). Virus was detected in nearly all semen samples collected from the 4 infected boars through days 13, 25, 27, and 43, respectively. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions attributable to PRRS virus were observed in tissues collected at the termination of the experiment (day 56), and virus isolation results from reproductive tissues were negative.

Summary

Four boars intranasally inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus were monitored for 56 days after exposure for changes in semen characteristics and for the presence of virus in the semen. Clinically, 2 of 4 boars had mild respiratory signs of 1 day's duration after infection. Changes in appetite, behavior, or libido were not detected. All boars seroconverted on the indirect fluorescent antibody and serum virus neutralization tests by day 14 after inoculation. Virus was isolated from serum between days 7 and 14 after inoculation. During the monitoring period, semen volume decreased and pH correspondingly increased; however, this change began 7 to 10 days prior to infection. Differences in sperm morphologic features, concentration, or motility between the preinfection and postinfection samples were not observed. The PRRS virus was detected in semen at the first collection in each of the 4 boars (ie, 3 or 5 days after challenge exposure). Virus was detected in nearly all semen samples collected from the 4 infected boars through days 13, 25, 27, and 43, respectively. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions attributable to PRRS virus were observed in tissues collected at the termination of the experiment (day 56), and virus isolation results from reproductive tissues were negative.

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