Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of lidocaine and xylazine for epidural analgesia in llamas

Tamara L. Grubb From the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

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Thomas W. Riebold From the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

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Michael J. Huber From the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

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Summary

Epidural analgesia was achieved at weekly intervals in 6 adults llamas by injection of 2% lidocaine, 10% xylazine, and a combination of 2% lidocaine/10% xylazine at the sacrococcygeal junction. Analgesia was determined by lack of response to pin prick or hemostat pressure in the perineal area. Ataxia could not be accurately evaluated because of the llamas’ tendency to assume sternal recumbency when restrained. Time to onset of analgesia was not different between lidocaine (3.16 ± 0.31 minutes) and lidocaine/xylazine (3.50 ± 0.56 minutes), but results for both groups were different than those for xylazine (20.67 ± 3.37 minutes). Duration of analgesia was different among all groups (lidocaine, 71.0 ± 6.15 minutes; xylazine, 186.83 ± 14.86 minutes; lidocaine/xylazine, 325.83 ± 29.39 minutes). Mild sedation developed in 4 llamas given xylazine alone. Lidocaine/xylazine caused mild sedation in 2 llamas and moderate sedation in 1 llama. Significant changes in pulse or respiratory rates were not observed among drugs, but changes were observed over time with all drugs. As has been reported in other species, lidocaine/xylazine provided rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia.

Summary

Epidural analgesia was achieved at weekly intervals in 6 adults llamas by injection of 2% lidocaine, 10% xylazine, and a combination of 2% lidocaine/10% xylazine at the sacrococcygeal junction. Analgesia was determined by lack of response to pin prick or hemostat pressure in the perineal area. Ataxia could not be accurately evaluated because of the llamas’ tendency to assume sternal recumbency when restrained. Time to onset of analgesia was not different between lidocaine (3.16 ± 0.31 minutes) and lidocaine/xylazine (3.50 ± 0.56 minutes), but results for both groups were different than those for xylazine (20.67 ± 3.37 minutes). Duration of analgesia was different among all groups (lidocaine, 71.0 ± 6.15 minutes; xylazine, 186.83 ± 14.86 minutes; lidocaine/xylazine, 325.83 ± 29.39 minutes). Mild sedation developed in 4 llamas given xylazine alone. Lidocaine/xylazine caused mild sedation in 2 llamas and moderate sedation in 1 llama. Significant changes in pulse or respiratory rates were not observed among drugs, but changes were observed over time with all drugs. As has been reported in other species, lidocaine/xylazine provided rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia.

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