Immunodeficiency syndrome associated with wasting and opportunistic infection in juvenile llamas: 12 cases (1988-1990)

Jennifer M. Hutchison From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Franklyn B. Garry From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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LaRue W. Johnson From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Sandra L. Quackenbush From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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David M. Getzy From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Wayne A. Jensen From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Edward A. Hoover From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (Hutchison, Garry, Johnson) and Pathology (Quackenbush, Getzy, Jensen, Hoover), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Summary

Immunodeficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe debilitating disease characterized by weight loss, failure to grow, and persistent infections that failed to respond to treatment in 12 young llamas. The llamas were affected after maternal-acquired immunity had decreased; failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins thus was not suspected. Areas of lymph nodes containing T lymphocytes were hypocellular, suggesting T-cell involvement. High serum immunoglobulin concentrations were not found, despite the existence of infectious disease, suggesting at least secondary B-cell involvement. Results of lymphocyte blastogenesis assays were suggestive of B- and T-cell involvement. It was not possible to determine whether the condition was inherited or acquired.

Summary

Immunodeficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe debilitating disease characterized by weight loss, failure to grow, and persistent infections that failed to respond to treatment in 12 young llamas. The llamas were affected after maternal-acquired immunity had decreased; failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins thus was not suspected. Areas of lymph nodes containing T lymphocytes were hypocellular, suggesting T-cell involvement. High serum immunoglobulin concentrations were not found, despite the existence of infectious disease, suggesting at least secondary B-cell involvement. Results of lymphocyte blastogenesis assays were suggestive of B- and T-cell involvement. It was not possible to determine whether the condition was inherited or acquired.

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