Yohimbine/flumazenil antagonism of hemodynamic alterations induced by a combination of midazolam, xylazine, and butorphanol in dogs

M. E. Gross From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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W. J. Tranquilli From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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J. C. Thurmon From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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G. J. Benson From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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W. A. Olson From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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 PhD

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Summary

Reversal of hemodynamic alterations induced by midazolam maleate (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), xylazine hydrochloride (0.44 mg/kg), and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) with yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.25 mg/kg) was evaluated in 5 dogs. The dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane for instrumentation. With return to consciousness, baseline values were recorded, and the midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol mixture with glycopyrrolate was administered IV. Hemodynamic data were recorded for 60 minutes, and then a reversal mixture of yohimbine and flumazenil was administered IV. All variables were measured 1 minute from beginning of the reversal injection. Mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline at 60 minutes. Cardiac index and central venous pressure significantly decreased below baseline at 60 minutes. After reversal, mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure significantly decreased from baseline, whereas cardiac index, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above baseline. Heart rate, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above the 60-minute value after reversal. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) below the 60-minute value after reversal. The hemodynamic alterations accompanying midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol sedation-anesthesia may be rapidly reversed with a combination of yohimbine and flumazenil.

Summary

Reversal of hemodynamic alterations induced by midazolam maleate (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), xylazine hydrochloride (0.44 mg/kg), and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) with yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.25 mg/kg) was evaluated in 5 dogs. The dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane for instrumentation. With return to consciousness, baseline values were recorded, and the midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol mixture with glycopyrrolate was administered IV. Hemodynamic data were recorded for 60 minutes, and then a reversal mixture of yohimbine and flumazenil was administered IV. All variables were measured 1 minute from beginning of the reversal injection. Mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline at 60 minutes. Cardiac index and central venous pressure significantly decreased below baseline at 60 minutes. After reversal, mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure significantly decreased from baseline, whereas cardiac index, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above baseline. Heart rate, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above the 60-minute value after reversal. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) below the 60-minute value after reversal. The hemodynamic alterations accompanying midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol sedation-anesthesia may be rapidly reversed with a combination of yohimbine and flumazenil.

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