Coccidioidomycosis in llamas in the United States: 19 cases (1981-1989)

Murray E. Fowler From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine (Fowler), the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine (Pappagianis) University of California, Davis, CA 95616 and All Creatures Animal Hospital, Scottsdale, Ariz.

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Demosthenes Pappagianis From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine (Fowler), the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine (Pappagianis) University of California, Davis, CA 95616 and All Creatures Animal Hospital, Scottsdale, Ariz.

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Irvin Ingram From the Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine (Fowler), the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine (Pappagianis) University of California, Davis, CA 95616 and All Creatures Animal Hospital, Scottsdale, Ariz.

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Summary

Coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 19 llamas (California, 9; Arizona, 10). All but 1 had a disseminated form, with pyogranulomas principally in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys. However, lesions were found in tissue specimens from most organ systems. Antemortem diagnosis was based on radiographic evaluation of the lungs, serologic testing, or presence of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in pyogranuloma aspirates, skin scrapings, or biopsy specimens.

Animals residing in endemic areas of southwestern United States are at risk, and llamas appear to be highly susceptible to developing disseminated forms of coccidioidomycosis.

Summary

Coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 19 llamas (California, 9; Arizona, 10). All but 1 had a disseminated form, with pyogranulomas principally in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys. However, lesions were found in tissue specimens from most organ systems. Antemortem diagnosis was based on radiographic evaluation of the lungs, serologic testing, or presence of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in pyogranuloma aspirates, skin scrapings, or biopsy specimens.

Animals residing in endemic areas of southwestern United States are at risk, and llamas appear to be highly susceptible to developing disseminated forms of coccidioidomycosis.

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