Systemic necrotizing vasculitis in nine young Beagles

J. Catharine R. Scott-Moncrieff From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Scott-Moncrieff) and Veterinary Pathobiology (Snyder, Glickman, Davis, Felsburg), School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Lynn Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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 MA, VetMB, MS
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Paul W. Snyder From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Scott-Moncrieff) and Veterinary Pathobiology (Snyder, Glickman, Davis, Felsburg), School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Lynn Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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 BS, DVM
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Lawrence T. Glickman From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Scott-Moncrieff) and Veterinary Pathobiology (Snyder, Glickman, Davis, Felsburg), School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Lynn Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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 VMD, DPH
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Erica L. Davis From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Scott-Moncrieff) and Veterinary Pathobiology (Snyder, Glickman, Davis, Felsburg), School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Lynn Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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Peter J. Felsburg From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Scott-Moncrieff) and Veterinary Pathobiology (Snyder, Glickman, Davis, Felsburg), School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Lynn Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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 VMD, PhD

Summary

A systemic necrotizing vasculitis of unknown etiopathogenesis may be termed juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (jps). The syndrome has been recognized primarily in young Beagles used for toxicologic studies. We studied 9 young Beagles with jps. Affected dogs had fever (40 to 41.5 C), anorexia, and signs of pain in the cervical area. They had a characteristic hunched stance, and were unwilling to move. Laboratory abnormalities in all dogs included nonregenerative anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and leukocytosis characterized by a mature neutrophilia. Analysis of csf revealed a moderate to severe neutrophilic pleocytosis and a mildly high protein concentration in most dogs. Signs of disease resolved rapidly with high doses (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, po) of prednisone. If untreated, clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities had a remitting and relapsing course in most dogs. Findings at necropsy included necrotizing arteritis with fibrinoid necrosis, periarteritis, thrombosis, and intimal proliferation that most frequently affected small- to medium-sized vessels in the cervical spinal cord, mediastinum, and heart. An immune-mediated pathogenesis for this disease is suspected.

Summary

A systemic necrotizing vasculitis of unknown etiopathogenesis may be termed juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (jps). The syndrome has been recognized primarily in young Beagles used for toxicologic studies. We studied 9 young Beagles with jps. Affected dogs had fever (40 to 41.5 C), anorexia, and signs of pain in the cervical area. They had a characteristic hunched stance, and were unwilling to move. Laboratory abnormalities in all dogs included nonregenerative anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and leukocytosis characterized by a mature neutrophilia. Analysis of csf revealed a moderate to severe neutrophilic pleocytosis and a mildly high protein concentration in most dogs. Signs of disease resolved rapidly with high doses (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, po) of prednisone. If untreated, clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities had a remitting and relapsing course in most dogs. Findings at necropsy included necrotizing arteritis with fibrinoid necrosis, periarteritis, thrombosis, and intimal proliferation that most frequently affected small- to medium-sized vessels in the cervical spinal cord, mediastinum, and heart. An immune-mediated pathogenesis for this disease is suspected.

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