Prognosis for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone: 162 cases (1978-1988)

Gary J. Spodnick From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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John Berg From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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William M. Rand From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Scott H. Schelling From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Guillermo Couto From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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H. Jay Harvey From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Ralph A. Henderson From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Gregory MacEwen From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Neal Mauldin From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Dudley L. McCaw From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Antony S. Moore From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Wallace Morrison From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Alan M. Norris From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Joyce O'Bradovich From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Deborah A. O'Keefe From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Rodney Page From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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David Ruslander From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Jeff Klausner From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Rodney Straw From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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James P. Thompson From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Stephen J. Withrow From The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Contributing institutions were: Tufts University (Spodnick, Berg, Rand, Schelling), Ohio State University (Couto), Cornell University (Harvey), Auburn University (Henderson), University of Wisconsin (MacEwen), Animal Medical Center (Mauldin), University of Missouri (McCaw), University of California (Moore), Purdue University (Morrison), Veterinary Referral Clinic, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (Norris), Michigan State University (O'Bradovich), University of Illinois (O'Keefe), North Carolina State University (Page), University of Saskatchewan (Ruslander), University of Minnesota (Klausner), Colorado State University (Straw, Withrow), and University of Florida (Thompson).

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Summary

Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

Summary

Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

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