Evaluation of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer as an orthopedic implant in dogs

Peter B. Trevor From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (Trevor, Carrig, Waldron, Smith) and the Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Abington Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106 (Stevenson).

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Sharon Stevenson From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (Trevor, Carrig, Waldron, Smith) and the Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Abington Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106 (Stevenson).

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Colin B. Carrig From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (Trevor, Carrig, Waldron, Smith) and the Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Abington Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106 (Stevenson).

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Don R. Waldron From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (Trevor, Carrig, Waldron, Smith) and the Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Abington Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106 (Stevenson).

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Mark M. Smith From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (Trevor, Carrig, Waldron, Smith) and the Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Abington Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106 (Stevenson).

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Summary

The biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (bop), a synthetic implant, were evaluated. Bilateral oval cortical defects (1 × 2 cm) were made in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the proximal portion of the femur in 16 dogs that later were treated with bop fiber (n = 16) or autogenous cancellous bone (n = 11), or were not treated (n = 5). The bop block was attached extraperiosteally to the proximal portion of the humerus in 6 dogs. Radiographic assessment of surgery sites was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic evaluation was performed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Radiographic signs of bone healing were not observed in defects treated with bop fiber. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated had radiographic signs of progressive bone ingrowth. Radiographic evidence of periosteal new bone formation near control and bop-treated defects was observed 4 weeks after surgery; increased periosteal reaction was associated with bop fiber. This new bone had resorbed by week 24, except bone adjacent to bop fiber, where continued periosteal reaction was apparent. Histologic evidence of bone formation was observed extending to, but not incorporating, bop fibers. The bop fibers became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and fibrovascular connective tissue infiltrated between and into bop fibers, but minimal bone formation incorporated the bop material during the follow-up period. During that time, active periosteal new bone formation was evident adjacent to the bop fibers. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated healed by ingrowth of cancellous bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery and by reformation of the lateral cortical wall by week 24. The bop blocks became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, but connective tissue or bone ingrowth into bop blocks was not observed. Results indicate that bop is not osteoconductive within a 6-month time frame when used in subtrochanteric femoral defects or when placed extraperiosteally on the proximal portion of the humerus of clinically normal dogs.

Summary

The biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (bop), a synthetic implant, were evaluated. Bilateral oval cortical defects (1 × 2 cm) were made in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the proximal portion of the femur in 16 dogs that later were treated with bop fiber (n = 16) or autogenous cancellous bone (n = 11), or were not treated (n = 5). The bop block was attached extraperiosteally to the proximal portion of the humerus in 6 dogs. Radiographic assessment of surgery sites was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic evaluation was performed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Radiographic signs of bone healing were not observed in defects treated with bop fiber. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated had radiographic signs of progressive bone ingrowth. Radiographic evidence of periosteal new bone formation near control and bop-treated defects was observed 4 weeks after surgery; increased periosteal reaction was associated with bop fiber. This new bone had resorbed by week 24, except bone adjacent to bop fiber, where continued periosteal reaction was apparent. Histologic evidence of bone formation was observed extending to, but not incorporating, bop fibers. The bop fibers became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and fibrovascular connective tissue infiltrated between and into bop fibers, but minimal bone formation incorporated the bop material during the follow-up period. During that time, active periosteal new bone formation was evident adjacent to the bop fibers. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated healed by ingrowth of cancellous bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery and by reformation of the lateral cortical wall by week 24. The bop blocks became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, but connective tissue or bone ingrowth into bop blocks was not observed. Results indicate that bop is not osteoconductive within a 6-month time frame when used in subtrochanteric femoral defects or when placed extraperiosteally on the proximal portion of the humerus of clinically normal dogs.

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