Prevalence of nephrotoxicosis associated with a short-term saline solution diuresis protocol for the administration of cisplatin to dogs with malignant tumors: 61 cases (1987-1989)

Gregory K. Ogilvie From the Comparative Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences (Ogilvie, Straw, Cooper, Withrow), and the Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology (Powers), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Rodney C. Straw From the Comparative Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences (Ogilvie, Straw, Cooper, Withrow), and the Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology (Powers), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Barbara E. Powers From the Comparative Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences (Ogilvie, Straw, Cooper, Withrow), and the Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology (Powers), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Mary F. Cooper From the Comparative Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences (Ogilvie, Straw, Cooper, Withrow), and the Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology (Powers), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Stephen J. Withrow From the Comparative Oncology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences (Ogilvie, Straw, Cooper, Withrow), and the Department of Radiology and Radiation Biology (Powers), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Summary

The study reported here was undertaken to determine the nephrotoxicosis associated with the administration of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, to dogs when administered during 6-hour saline solution diuresis. Cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, iv, every 21 days) was given to 61 dogs with malignant neoplasia with a total of 185 doses in 1 (n = 9 dogs), 2 (n = 26 dogs), 3 (n = 4 dogs), 4 (n = 9 dogs), 5 (n = 2 dogs), and 6 (n = 11 dogs) treatments. The cisplatin was given over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl solution (saline solution) was administered iv for 4 hours at a rate of 18.3 ml/kg of body weight/h. After the cisplatin infusion, saline solution diuresis was continued at the same rate for 2 hours. Before each treatment with cisplatin, dogs were evaluated with at least a physical examination, cbc, determination of serum urea nitrogen concentration, and in most cases, determination of serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity. Four of the 61 dogs (6.6%) developed clinically evident renal disease after 2 (1 dog), 3 (2 dogs), and 4 (1 dog) doses of cisplatin were administered. Three of the 4 dogs had preexisting disease of the urinary tract prior to the start of treatment. The survival time in dogs that developed renal disease (median, 145 days; range, 15 to 150 days) was similar to that of all dogs in this study (median, 154 days; range, 30 to 500 days), with 13 dogs still alive at the conclusion of the study. Three of the 4 dogs that developed renal disease were euthanatized because of tumor-related causes and chronic renal failure, whereas the fourth died as a direct result of nephrotoxicosis. Therefore, the 6-hour saline solution diuresis protocol used in this study to administer cisplatin appears to be effective in preventing nephrotoxicosis in dogs with tumors without preexisting urinary tract disease.

Summary

The study reported here was undertaken to determine the nephrotoxicosis associated with the administration of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, to dogs when administered during 6-hour saline solution diuresis. Cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, iv, every 21 days) was given to 61 dogs with malignant neoplasia with a total of 185 doses in 1 (n = 9 dogs), 2 (n = 26 dogs), 3 (n = 4 dogs), 4 (n = 9 dogs), 5 (n = 2 dogs), and 6 (n = 11 dogs) treatments. The cisplatin was given over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl solution (saline solution) was administered iv for 4 hours at a rate of 18.3 ml/kg of body weight/h. After the cisplatin infusion, saline solution diuresis was continued at the same rate for 2 hours. Before each treatment with cisplatin, dogs were evaluated with at least a physical examination, cbc, determination of serum urea nitrogen concentration, and in most cases, determination of serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity. Four of the 61 dogs (6.6%) developed clinically evident renal disease after 2 (1 dog), 3 (2 dogs), and 4 (1 dog) doses of cisplatin were administered. Three of the 4 dogs had preexisting disease of the urinary tract prior to the start of treatment. The survival time in dogs that developed renal disease (median, 145 days; range, 15 to 150 days) was similar to that of all dogs in this study (median, 154 days; range, 30 to 500 days), with 13 dogs still alive at the conclusion of the study. Three of the 4 dogs that developed renal disease were euthanatized because of tumor-related causes and chronic renal failure, whereas the fourth died as a direct result of nephrotoxicosis. Therefore, the 6-hour saline solution diuresis protocol used in this study to administer cisplatin appears to be effective in preventing nephrotoxicosis in dogs with tumors without preexisting urinary tract disease.

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