Ultrasonographic findings in dogs and cats with oxalate nephrosis attributed to ethylene glycol intoxication: 15 cases (1984-1988)

William H. Adams From the Departments of Urban Practice (Adams), Rural Practice (Toal), and Pathobiology (Breider), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901.

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Robert L. Toal From the Departments of Urban Practice (Adams), Rural Practice (Toal), and Pathobiology (Breider), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901.

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Michael A. Breider From the Departments of Urban Practice (Adams), Rural Practice (Toal), and Pathobiology (Breider), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901.

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Summary

Renal ultrasonographic findings in 12 dogs and 3 cats determined to have oxalate nephrosis presumed to be secondary to ethylene glycol intoxication were examined. Ultrasonographic changes varied from mild to marked increases in renal cortical echogenicity. A pattern of greater than normal cortical and medullary echogenicity with persistence of areas of lesser echo intensity at the corticomedullary junction and central medullary regions was observed. This pattern, termed the halo sign, was recognized in 7 dogs and 1 cat concurrent with the development of clinical anuria. Ultrasonographic patterns in these clinical cases were similar to those observed in a previous study of dogs with experimentally induced ethylene glycol nephrosis. Ultrasonographic findings were not considered pathognomonic of ethylene glycol nephrosis. Due to the high death rate reported in the cases surveyed, detection of ultrasonographic changes was considered to warrant a guarded to poor prognosis. Because of the association of the halo sign with anuria, its detection was considered to warrant a grave prognosis.

Summary

Renal ultrasonographic findings in 12 dogs and 3 cats determined to have oxalate nephrosis presumed to be secondary to ethylene glycol intoxication were examined. Ultrasonographic changes varied from mild to marked increases in renal cortical echogenicity. A pattern of greater than normal cortical and medullary echogenicity with persistence of areas of lesser echo intensity at the corticomedullary junction and central medullary regions was observed. This pattern, termed the halo sign, was recognized in 7 dogs and 1 cat concurrent with the development of clinical anuria. Ultrasonographic patterns in these clinical cases were similar to those observed in a previous study of dogs with experimentally induced ethylene glycol nephrosis. Ultrasonographic findings were not considered pathognomonic of ethylene glycol nephrosis. Due to the high death rate reported in the cases surveyed, detection of ultrasonographic changes was considered to warrant a guarded to poor prognosis. Because of the association of the halo sign with anuria, its detection was considered to warrant a grave prognosis.

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