Ultrasonographic evaluation of horses with thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein: 46 cases (1985-1988)

Sarah Y. Gardner From the Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Virginia B. Reef From the Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Pamela A. Spencer From the Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

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Summary

Medical records of 46 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis that were evaluated ultrasonographically were reviewed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the thrombus within the jugular vein was classified as noncavitating if it had uniform low to medium amplitude echoes, or as cavitating if it was heterogenous with anechoic to hypoechoic areas representing fluid or necrotic areas within the thrombus, and/or hyperechoic areas representing gas. Signs of pain on palpation of the affected vein (P < 0.001), heat over the vein (P = 0.001), and swelling of the vein (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with the ultrasonographic detection of a cavitating lesion. Ultrasonography also was useful for selecting a site for aspiration of a specimen for bacteriologic culturing and susceptibility testing.

Summary

Medical records of 46 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis that were evaluated ultrasonographically were reviewed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the thrombus within the jugular vein was classified as noncavitating if it had uniform low to medium amplitude echoes, or as cavitating if it was heterogenous with anechoic to hypoechoic areas representing fluid or necrotic areas within the thrombus, and/or hyperechoic areas representing gas. Signs of pain on palpation of the affected vein (P < 0.001), heat over the vein (P = 0.001), and swelling of the vein (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with the ultrasonographic detection of a cavitating lesion. Ultrasonography also was useful for selecting a site for aspiration of a specimen for bacteriologic culturing and susceptibility testing.

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