Prognostic factors and survival of horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma: 147 cases (1978-1988)

Steven J. Dugan From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Steven M. Roberts From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Charles R. Curtis From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Glenn A. Severin From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Summary

Between January 1978 and December 1988, 147 horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma (scc) were admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (CSU-VTH). Diagnosis was conjirmed by histologic examination of appropriate tissue specimens. Medical records and communication with owners, referring veterinarians, or both provided information regarding initial examination, treatment at the CSU-VTH, and final outcome. At initial examination, 123 (83.7%) horses had unilateral involvement and 24 (16.3%) horses had bilateral involvement. The nictitating membrane, nasal canthus, or both (28.1%); limbus (27.5%); and eyelid (22.8%) were most commonly affected. In addition to the ocular/adnexal location, scc was found elsewhere in 14 (9.5%) horses at initial examination. Adequate follow-up (≥ 4 months) for examination of tumor recurrence and survival analysis was obtained for 125 (85.0%) cases. After treatment at the CSU-VTH, tumor recurred in 30.4% of the cases. Tumor location, multiple vs single tumors at initial diagnosis, and CSU-VTH treatment modality influenced the recurrence of tumors. Survival analysis revealed a good prognosis for horses with ocular/adnexal scc. Although undefined, a conservative estimate of the median survival time was 47 months. Six factors (treatment prior to referral, tumor location, tumor size, single or multiple tumors, treatment modality at the CSU-VTH, and recurrence or nonrecurrence) were analyzed to determine their relation with survival. Treatment prior to referral, multiple vs single tumors at initial examination, and treatment modality used at the CSU-VTH did not influence survival. Tumor location influenced survival; scc involving the eyelid or orbit was associated with the poorest prognosis. Tumor stage (maximal dimension) was inversely related with survival. One or more recurrences of scc markedly reduced the likelihood of survival.

Summary

Between January 1978 and December 1988, 147 horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma (scc) were admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (CSU-VTH). Diagnosis was conjirmed by histologic examination of appropriate tissue specimens. Medical records and communication with owners, referring veterinarians, or both provided information regarding initial examination, treatment at the CSU-VTH, and final outcome. At initial examination, 123 (83.7%) horses had unilateral involvement and 24 (16.3%) horses had bilateral involvement. The nictitating membrane, nasal canthus, or both (28.1%); limbus (27.5%); and eyelid (22.8%) were most commonly affected. In addition to the ocular/adnexal location, scc was found elsewhere in 14 (9.5%) horses at initial examination. Adequate follow-up (≥ 4 months) for examination of tumor recurrence and survival analysis was obtained for 125 (85.0%) cases. After treatment at the CSU-VTH, tumor recurred in 30.4% of the cases. Tumor location, multiple vs single tumors at initial diagnosis, and CSU-VTH treatment modality influenced the recurrence of tumors. Survival analysis revealed a good prognosis for horses with ocular/adnexal scc. Although undefined, a conservative estimate of the median survival time was 47 months. Six factors (treatment prior to referral, tumor location, tumor size, single or multiple tumors, treatment modality at the CSU-VTH, and recurrence or nonrecurrence) were analyzed to determine their relation with survival. Treatment prior to referral, multiple vs single tumors at initial examination, and treatment modality used at the CSU-VTH did not influence survival. Tumor location influenced survival; scc involving the eyelid or orbit was associated with the poorest prognosis. Tumor stage (maximal dimension) was inversely related with survival. One or more recurrences of scc markedly reduced the likelihood of survival.

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