Xanthine-containing urinary calculi in dogs given allopurinol

Gerald V. Ling From the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Annette L. Ruby From the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Doris R. Harrold From the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Deedra L. Johnson From the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Summary

Clinical features and laboratory findings were evaluated in 10 dogs that formed xanthine-containing urinary calculi during the period that they were given allopurinol (9 to 38 mg/kg of body weight/d). Duration of allopurinol treatment was 5 weeks to 6 years. Of the 10 dogs, 9 (all Dalmatians) had formed uric acid-containing calculi at least once before allopurinol treatment was initiated. It was not possible to recognize xanthine as a crystalline component of the calculi by use of a chemical colorimetric method or by polarized light microscopy. We concluded that the best diagnostic method for recognition of xanthine-containing calculi was high-pressure liquid chromatography because it is quantitative, sensitive, and accurate, and can be conducted on a small amount (1 to 2 mg) of crystalline material.

Summary

Clinical features and laboratory findings were evaluated in 10 dogs that formed xanthine-containing urinary calculi during the period that they were given allopurinol (9 to 38 mg/kg of body weight/d). Duration of allopurinol treatment was 5 weeks to 6 years. Of the 10 dogs, 9 (all Dalmatians) had formed uric acid-containing calculi at least once before allopurinol treatment was initiated. It was not possible to recognize xanthine as a crystalline component of the calculi by use of a chemical colorimetric method or by polarized light microscopy. We concluded that the best diagnostic method for recognition of xanthine-containing calculi was high-pressure liquid chromatography because it is quantitative, sensitive, and accurate, and can be conducted on a small amount (1 to 2 mg) of crystalline material.

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