Endometrial biopsy technique and uterine pathologic findings in llamas

Barbara E. Powers From the Diagnostic Laboratory (Powers) and Department of Clinical Sciences (Johnson, Garry, Smith), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Redmond Veterinary Clinic, Redmond, OR 97756 (Linton).

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LaRue W. Johnson From the Diagnostic Laboratory (Powers) and Department of Clinical Sciences (Johnson, Garry, Smith), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Redmond Veterinary Clinic, Redmond, OR 97756 (Linton).

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Louise B. Linton From the Diagnostic Laboratory (Powers) and Department of Clinical Sciences (Johnson, Garry, Smith), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Redmond Veterinary Clinic, Redmond, OR 97756 (Linton).

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Frank Garry From the Diagnostic Laboratory (Powers) and Department of Clinical Sciences (Johnson, Garry, Smith), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Redmond Veterinary Clinic, Redmond, OR 97756 (Linton).

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John Smith From the Diagnostic Laboratory (Powers) and Department of Clinical Sciences (Johnson, Garry, Smith), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, and Redmond Veterinary Clinic, Redmond, OR 97756 (Linton).

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Summary

Uterine tissue specimens from 90 llamas with history of infertility were examined and graded microscopically; 83 specimens were obtained by endometrial biopsy and 7 specimens were obtained at necropsy. Fifteen llamas (16.7%) had a normal uterus, which was graded 1A. Twenty-three llamas (25.6%) had minor uterine abnormalities that were graded lB. Forty-five llamas (50.0%) had appreciable endometritis that was graded 2A. Three llamas (3.3%) had endometritis with gland fibrosis that was graded 2B. Two llamas (2.2%) had notable uterine gland fibrosis that was graded 3A. Two llamas (2.2%) had uterine neoplasia that was graded 3B. Thirty-six llamas had follow-up evaluation; 22 became pregnant, most after some form of treatment. Uterine biopsy in llamas was readily performed without complications and was valuable in identifying a wide range of uterine diseases, most of which were amenable to treatment.

Summary

Uterine tissue specimens from 90 llamas with history of infertility were examined and graded microscopically; 83 specimens were obtained by endometrial biopsy and 7 specimens were obtained at necropsy. Fifteen llamas (16.7%) had a normal uterus, which was graded 1A. Twenty-three llamas (25.6%) had minor uterine abnormalities that were graded lB. Forty-five llamas (50.0%) had appreciable endometritis that was graded 2A. Three llamas (3.3%) had endometritis with gland fibrosis that was graded 2B. Two llamas (2.2%) had notable uterine gland fibrosis that was graded 3A. Two llamas (2.2%) had uterine neoplasia that was graded 3B. Thirty-six llamas had follow-up evaluation; 22 became pregnant, most after some form of treatment. Uterine biopsy in llamas was readily performed without complications and was valuable in identifying a wide range of uterine diseases, most of which were amenable to treatment.

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