The project was supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, through the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), grant UL-1TR002373.
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
The authors thank David Ergun for helping with CT scanning of the horse heads, John Palmer for assistance with the firearms and firearm safety, and Dr. Keith Poulsen for help with disposal of equine cadaver heads.
Automatic Colt pistol
GE LightSpeed CT scanner, 8 slice, GE Co, Fairfield, Conn.
Equina system, Asto CT LLC, Madison, Wis.
Remington model 870 express, Remington Arms, Madison, NC.
Winchester Ranger, 2 3/4-inch length, 1-oz slug, Winchester Ammunition, Alton, Ill.
Ruger model mini-14 Sturm, Ruger & Co, Inc, Southport, Conn, and Yankee Hill Machine model AR-15a2, Yankee Hill Machine Co, Easthampton, Mass.
.223 Remington ammunition, Hornady Frontier, Huntsville, Ala.
1911a1 Mil-Spec stainless, Springfield Armory, Geneseo, Ill.
Federal 45 Auto +P HST 230 gr JHP, Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, Independence, Mo.
Glock model 19, Glock Ges mbH, Deutsch-Wagram, Austria, and 22 Beretta model 92fs stainless, Beretta, Accokeek, Md.
Winchester Ranger 9-mm grain T-series, Winchester Ammunition, Alton, Ill.
Ruger model super single-six, Sturm, Ruger & Co Inc, Southport, Conn.
Federal AutoMatch, Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, Independence, Mo.
Winchester Super-X high velocity ammunition, Winchester Ammunition, Alton, Ill.
Intellispace, Koninklijke Philips, NV, Netherlands.
- 1. ↑
2 Sec 201 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Available at: www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/USCODE-2011-title21/pdf/USCODE-2011-title21-chap9.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019.
- 2. ↑
US Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Law Enforcement. 16 USC 668–668d Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, Subchapter II—Protection of bald and golden eagles. Available at: www.fws.gov/le/USStatutes/BEPA.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019.
- 4. ↑
Payne J, Farris R, Parker G, et al. Quantification of sodium pentobarbital residues from equine mortality compost piles. J Anim Sci 2015;93:1824 1829.
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Bonhotal J, Schwarz M, Williams C, et al. Horse mortality: carcass disposal alternatives Available at: cwmi.css.cornell.edu. Accessed Feb 27, 2020.
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Leary S, Underwood W, Anthony R, et al. Part II—Methods of euthanasia. In: AVMA guidelines for the euthanasia of animals: 2020 edition;22–48 and 78. Available at: www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-01/2020_Euthanasia_Final_1-15-20.pdf.
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Shearer JK, Nicoletti P. Humane euthanasia of sick, injured, and/or debilitated livestock: procedures for humane euthanasia. Available at: edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Accessed May 25, 2019
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Baker HJ, Scrimgeour HJ. Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak. Can Vet J 1995;36:160 165.
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Hollerman JJ, Fackler ML, Coidweli DM, et al. Review article gunshot wounds: 1. bullets, ballistics, and mechanisms of injury. Am J Roentgenol 1990;1:685 690.
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Shrout PE, Fleiss JL. Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull 1979;86:420 428.
- 14. ↑
Farm animal care council for the care and handling of equine codes of practice. Ottawa, Canada: Equine Canada and the National Farm Animal Care Council. 2013. Available at: www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/equine_code_of_practice.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2019.
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Gibson TJ, Bedford EM, Chancellor NM, et al. Pathophysiology of free-bullet slaughter of horses and ponies. Meat Sci 2015;108:120 124.
- 16. ↑
Machado M, Maria R, Silva G, et al. Bone and brain lesions in horses following euthanasia with fire gun. Braz J Vet Pathol 2003;6:102 105.
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Millar GI, Mills DS. Observations on the trajectory of the bullet in fifteen horses euthanized by a free bullet. Vet Rec 2000;146:754 757.
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Thomson DU, Wileman BW, Rezac DJ, et al. Computed tomographic evaluation to determine efficacy of euthanasia of yearling feedlot cattle by use of various firearm-ammunition combinations. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:1385 1391.
Scoring system that was used to determine the extent of projectile fragmentation, skull fracture, and structural disruption of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem in equine cadaveric heads shot with various firearm-ammunition combinations.
|0||No change; no physical tissue disruption caused by the projectile and no fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|
|1||Minimal (approx < 10%) tissue disruption caused by the projectile and minimal fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|
|2||Mild (approx ≥ 10% to < 30%) tissue disruption caused by the projectile and mild fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|
|3||Moderate (approx ≥ 30% to < 50%) tissue disruption caused by the projectile and moderate fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|
|4||Severe (approx ≥ 50% to < 70%) tissue disruption caused by the projectile and severe fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|
|5||Nearly complete or complete (approx ≥ 70%) tissue disruption caused by the projectile and nearly complete or complete fragmentation of the projectile or osseous structures|