Indications for urethral catheterization include monitoring and quantification of urine output, collection of a urine sample for analysis, performance of radiographic contrast procedures, relief of an anatomic or functional obstruction, and evacuation of urine from the bladder for patient comfort during or after surgery.1 Urinary catheter placement is also used during urologic or pelvic surgeries when identification of the urethra is imperative to avoid any risk of iatrogenic damage.
Described techniques for placement of urinary catheters in female animals include blind insertion, digital palpation, or use of instrumentation to directly visualize the urethral papilla.2 However, these techniques can be technically challenging, particularly when small patient size precludes the use of instruments or digital palpation. As such, description of a novel technique specifically for use in smaller animals that involves minimal to no training or instrumentation would benefit clinicians and patients alike by facilitating rapid urethral catheterization.
The purpose of the study reported here was to perform a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization in sexually intact female cats and small dogs. The intent was to assess the time required for completion and success rate of the novel technique when applied by persons with different levels of experience in urinary catheter placement and compare those findings with completion times and success rates of traditional methods of urethral catheterization (ie, blind technique in cats and digital palpation in dogs) performed by the same personnel. We hypothesized that the novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization would take less time to complete, compared with traditional methods, across CPs of differing skill levels.
Buprenex, Par Pharmaceutical, Chestnut Ridge, NY.
Dexdomitor, Zoetis Inc, Kalamazoo, Mich.
MWI Animal Health, Boise, Idaho.
Simbadol, Zoetis Inc, Kalamazoo, Mich.
Vetaket, Akorn Animal Health, Lake Forest, Ill.
Diprivan, Fresenius Kabi, Lake Zurich, Ill.
Alfaxan Multidose, Jurox Inc, Kansas City, Mo.
Forane, Baxter, Deerfield, Ill.
Kendall Feeding Tube and Urethral Catheter, Covidien, Mansfield, Mass.
Dover Red Rubber Urethral Catheter, Covidien, Perlis, Malaysia.
SAS, version 9.4 for Windows, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.
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2. Aldrich J. Urethral catheterization. In: Burkitt Creedon JM, Davis H, eds. Advanced monitoring and procedures for small animal emergency and critical care. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014;393–408.
3. Lees GE, Osborne CA, Stevens JB, et al. Adverse effects caused by polypropylene and polyvinyl feline urinary catheters. Am J Vet Res 1980;41:1836–1840.
4. Nacey JN, Delahunt B, Tulloch AG. The assessment of catheter-induced urethritis using an experimental dog model. J Urol 1985;134:623–625.