• View in gallery
    Figure 1—

    Photomicrographs obtained by use of light microscopy (A, C, and E) and fluorescence microscopy (B, D, and F) of mature chicken macrophages isolated from peripheral blood and cultured for 3 days with RPMI 1640 medium (control cells; A and B), HD-11M-CSF (C and D), and L929M-CSF (E and F). Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 stain was performed for fluorescence microscopy (B, D, and F). Notice that cells cultured with L929M-CSF for 3 days had short spindles or elliptical shapes and a markedly larger nucleus, as detected by use of nuclear staining, compared with that of the control cells. Bar = 50 μm.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 2—

    Photomicrographs of chicken macrophages isolated from peripheral blood and cultured for 3 days with HD-11M-CSF (A) or L929M-CSF (B) and then coincubated with mouse erythrocytes for 1 to 3 hours. Notice that phagocytosed mouse erythrocytes are evident within the macrophages. Bar = 50 μm.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 3—

    Photographs of agarose gels after electrophoresis of segments of the CD11b gene (GenBank accession No. KT337505) after chicken macrophages were activated by various stimuli. Lanes were as follows: M, DNA marker; lane 1, macrophages from bone marrow cultured in HD-11M-CSF; lane 2, macrophages from bone marrow cultured in L929M-CSF; lane 3, macrophages from peripheral blood cultured in HD-11M-CSF; and lane 4, macrophages from peripheral blood cultured in L929M-CSF.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 4—

    Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription for MHC and Ii chaperone genes, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium (no stimulus [control sample]; black bars) or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes (gray bars) or LPS (white bars). Values reported represent results for 3 replicates. *Value differs significantly (P = 0.01) from the value for the control sample.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 5—

    Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription of genes for M1-distinctive cytokines, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes or LPS. †Value differs significantly (P < 0.05) from the value for the control sample. See Figure 4 for remainder of key.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 6—

    Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription for genes of M2-distinctive cytokines, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes or LPS. See Figure 4 for remainder of key.

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Activation of chicken macrophages during in vitro stimulation and expression of immune genes

Xing JinKey Laboratory of Zoonoses of Anhui Province, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, People's Republic of China.

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Jinchun LiKey Laboratory of Zoonoses of Anhui Province, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, People's Republic of China.

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Weiyi YuKey Laboratory of Zoonoses of Anhui Province, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, People's Republic of China.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize activation and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mouse erythrocytes.

ANIMALS Five 15-day-old chickens and 2 BALB/c mice.

PROCEDURES Macrophages were extracted from chicken bone marrow or peripheral blood and then stimulated with cytokines secreted from cell lines L929 and HD11. Stimulated chicken macrophages were further cocultured with LPS or mouse erythrocytes, and gene transcription of some distinctive cytokines was detected by use of a real-time PCR assay.

RESULTS Morphological features and phagocytic function of macrophages were characterized. Activated macrophages had an elongated shape with a large cell nucleus, and they had phagocytic function. Distinctive genes encoding the surface marker gene CD11b were identified; high quantities of CD11b were transcribed. Relative transcription of chicken genes BF and BL in mature cells cocultured with both stimuli was lower than for control cells. However, the quantity of genes encoding M1- or M2-distinctive cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β) that were transcribed differed significantly between stimulation with LPS and mouse erythrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Chicken macrophages were differentially stimulated by LPS and mouse erythrocytes, which suggested that in vitro stimulation can distinctly influence the transcription and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize activation and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mouse erythrocytes.

ANIMALS Five 15-day-old chickens and 2 BALB/c mice.

PROCEDURES Macrophages were extracted from chicken bone marrow or peripheral blood and then stimulated with cytokines secreted from cell lines L929 and HD11. Stimulated chicken macrophages were further cocultured with LPS or mouse erythrocytes, and gene transcription of some distinctive cytokines was detected by use of a real-time PCR assay.

RESULTS Morphological features and phagocytic function of macrophages were characterized. Activated macrophages had an elongated shape with a large cell nucleus, and they had phagocytic function. Distinctive genes encoding the surface marker gene CD11b were identified; high quantities of CD11b were transcribed. Relative transcription of chicken genes BF and BL in mature cells cocultured with both stimuli was lower than for control cells. However, the quantity of genes encoding M1- or M2-distinctive cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β) that were transcribed differed significantly between stimulation with LPS and mouse erythrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Chicken macrophages were differentially stimulated by LPS and mouse erythrocytes, which suggested that in vitro stimulation can distinctly influence the transcription and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages.

Chicken macrophages are the most potent antigen-presenting cells capable of resistance to exogenous pathogenic microorganisms.1–6 Macrophages differentiate via classic or alternative pathways into 2 functional types: M1 or M2.7 Activated macrophages are critical antigen-presenting cells. The M1 type is activated by Th1 cells and can kill bacteria,8 viruses,9 and parasites.10 The M2 type is stimulated by cytokines10–12 secreted by Th2 cells and plays a role in tissue repair, immune regulation, and antitumor activity.13 The balance between M1 and M2 polarization influences immune responses in animals and is involved in some neurogenic diseases11 because both macrophage phenotypes have different roles in the development of disease.14 Moreover, polarization of M1 and M2 is dependent on several main factors, such as receptor-interacting protein 140,12 chemerin15 (which induces alternatively activated polarization of M2 macrophages and consequently suppresses inflammation),15 and sorafenib, which alters macrophage polarization and inhibits macrophage activation in vivo.13

Mouse macrophages can be induced to polarize when cultured in vitro with cytokines M-CSF or GM-CSF.16,17 The L929 cells secrete those cytokines; therefore, the cell supernatant can be used as the cytokine CSF in the medium to incubate macrophages.18,19 Macrophages can also be activated by Th1 cytokines to promote differentiation into M1, whereas Th2 cytokines trigger the alternative M2 phenotype.7,14,16,20 However, LPS is a stimulus that induces macrophages to express the M1 phenotype.21,22 There are differences in the cytokines secreted by the activated M1 or M2 phenotypes.23 All M1 and M2 cells express the surface marker CD11b gene,24,25 which is an important marker for macrophage identification.17 Moreover, activated macrophages also express the MHC, which is an important immune molecule that has a role in presenting endogenous and exogenous antigens.26 The MHC class I and II molecules are referred to as B-F and B-L, respectively, in chickens.27 Expression of MHC genes in macrophages is influenced by some cytokines.25–29

Macrophages have been extensively studied in several mammalian species and in zebrafish,30 but little attention has been given to the study of avian macrophages. Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate biological characteristics of chicken macrophages, including isolation, activation, and expression of immune-related genes, during polarization.

Materials and Methods

Animals

Five 15-day-old chickens were obtained from a breeding farm in Anhui Province. Two female BALB/c mice (10 weeks old) were obtained from the Animal Center of Anhui Medicine University; mice were bred under specific pathogen-free conditions at the facility. Experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the Anhui Medicine University animal care guidelines.

Preparation of L929M-CSF and HD-11M-CSF cells

Cells of a murine fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells)31 or chicken myelomonocytic cell line (HD11 cells)32,33 were seeded at 2 × 106 cells/mL onto 6-well tissue culture plates at 37°C and incubated in RPMI 1640 mediuma supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum,b 100 U of penicillin/mL, and 0.1 mg of streptomycin/mL at 5% CO2 for 3 to 5 days. Culture supernatant was collected as cell-conditioned medium (L929M-CSF or HD-11M-CSF medium), which was used for the culture of chicken macrophages.

Isolation and culture of chicken macrophages derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow

Each 15-day-old chicken was anesthetized, and a blood sample (5 mL) was collected via cardiac puncture into a sterile tube containing 1 mL of anticoagulant (4% sodium citrate buffer). Lymphocytes were isolated by the use of chicken lymphocyte separation medium.c The chickens were euthanized via a method listed in the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals,34 and femurs and tibias were harvested. Bone marrow cells of the femurs and tibias were collected by repeated aspiration with sterile PBS solution. Bone marrow cells were seeded at 2 × 106 cells/mL onto 6-well tissue culture plates. Cells were allocated into 3 wells: cells in the first well were cultured in medium containing 30% HD-11M-CSF, cells in the second well were cultured in medium containing 30% L929M-CSF, and cells in the third well were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (control medium). Cells were cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 5 to 7 days to allow differentiation of chicken macrophages; culture medium was then replaced with the corresponding condition medium containing 30% HD-11M-CSF, 30% L929M-CSF, or RPMI 1640 medium every day.

Examination of morphological features of macrophages

After macrophages were cultured with HD-11M-CSF or L929M-CSF for 5 days, the cells were washed 3 times with PBS solution and subsequently removed. Then 500 μL of Hoechst 33258 nuclear staind (5 μg/mL) was added to the cells, and cells were incubated for 10 minutes at approximately 22°C. Cells were washed with double-distilled H2O to remove excess dye and examined with a fluorescence microscopee by use of a 40× lens (excitation, 470 to 495 nm).

Examination of macrophage phagocytic function and stimulation with LPS or mouse erythrocytes

Each mouse was anesthetized, and a blood sample (1 mL) was collected via cardiac puncture into a sterile tube containing 0.2 mL of anticoagulant (4% sodium citrate buffer). Cells were washed with sterile PBS solution, and the mouse RBC suspension was added to the culture wells in which chicken macrophages had been cultured in the presence of HD-11M-CSF or L929M-CSF for 5 days; wells were incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 to 3 hours. Then 1 mL of Wright stainf and 2 mL of PBS solution were added to each well. Wells were incubated for an additional 10 minutes, and cells then were washed 3 times with PBS solution and examined with a light microscope. Mature macrophages were stimulated by incubation with LPS or mouse erythrocytes for 24 hours, and nonstimulated cultured cells served as a control sample.

RNA extraction and cDNA generation

Macrophage RNA was extracted with an extraction reagentg used in accordance with the manufacturer's protocol. Briefly, cultured and control cells were lysed in 1 mL of guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol-chloroform reagent,h and 0.2 mL of chloroform was added to each sample. Samples were then centrifuged at 12,000 × g at 4°C for 15 minutes. The RNA in the aqueous phase was precipitated by the addition of 0.5 mL of isopropyl alcohol; centrifugation was performed at 12,000 × g at 4°C for 15 minutes, and the pellets were washed with 75% ethanol. Total RNA was incubated with RNase inhibitori at 37°C for 30 minutes and then extracted 3 times with a solution of phenol:chloroform:isopentanol (25:24:1). Reverse transcription was performed with a cDNA synthesis kit.j

Cloning of the CD11b gene with a PCR assay

Primers were designed by use of softwarek,l; primers were designed on the basis of known sequences for CD11b from other species (Mus musculus, GenBank accession No. NM_008401; Homo sapiens, GenBank accession No. BC099660; Bos taurus, GenBank accession No. NM_001039957; Rattus norvegicus, GenBank accession No. NM_012711; and Sus scrofa, GenBank accession No. JF709973). The PCR assay was performed at a volume of 50 μL, with 1 μL (20μM) each of forward and reverse primer, 2.5 ng of template cDNA, 4 μL (0.25mL) of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, 0.25 μL (5 U) of DNA polymerase,m and 5 μL of 10× PCR assay reaction buffer. The PCR assay was performed by use of DNA polymerasen and the following conditions: 30 cycles of denaturation for 10 seconds at 98°C, annealing for 30 seconds at 58°C, extension for 8 minutes at 72°C, and a final step for 10 minutes at 72°C. Products were electrophoresed for isolation in a 1.0% agarose gel by use of a DNA gel extraction kit.o Resulting PCR assay fragments were directionally inserted into vector pMD18-Tp to yield the PMD18-T/CD11b plasmid and sequencing.q The clone sequence of this chicken CD11b gene was deposited into a nucleotide sequence database (GenBank accession No. KT337505).

Relative transcription of BF, BL, and macrophage-related cytokine genes by qRT-PCR assay

Relative quantities for transcription of BF and BL genes, Ii chaperone genes (Ii1 and Ii2), genes of M1-distinctive cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, iNOS, and TNF-α), and genes of M2-distinctive cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10) were detected by use of a qRT-PCR assay performed on a real-time system.r Gene-specific primers were designed by use of softwares to amplify PCR assay products of 80 to 250 bp (Appendix). Each reaction contained 10 μL of Taq mix,t 1 μL (80 ng) of diluted cDNA sample, and 0.4 μL (10μM) of gene-specific primers in a final volume of 20 μL. Thermal cycling conditions were 3 minutes at 95°C, and 40 cycles of 40 seconds at 94°C, 15 seconds at 62°C (extension phase), and 45 seconds at 72°C. Measurements were obtained at the end of the extension phase. Three replicates were performed for each gene. The gene for GAPDH was used as an internal control sample. Quantity of relative transcription was calculated as 2−ΔΔct.35

Statistical analysis

Gene transcription data were compared with a 1-way ANOVA by use of a statistical program.u Significance was defined as values of P < 0.05.

Results

Morphological characteristics and physiologic function of chicken macrophages

Chicken macrophages derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow were cultured in medium containing cytokines. After cells were cultured with HD-11M-CSF medium for 3 days, mature macrophages were large, and vacuoles were evident within the cells, with some cells being elliptical or having an elongated shape (Figure 1). Cells cultured with L929M-CSF medium for 3 days had short spindles or elliptical shapes and a markedly enlarged nucleus, as detected by use of nuclear staining, compared with that of the control cells.

Figure 1—
Figure 1—

Photomicrographs obtained by use of light microscopy (A, C, and E) and fluorescence microscopy (B, D, and F) of mature chicken macrophages isolated from peripheral blood and cultured for 3 days with RPMI 1640 medium (control cells; A and B), HD-11M-CSF (C and D), and L929M-CSF (E and F). Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 stain was performed for fluorescence microscopy (B, D, and F). Notice that cells cultured with L929M-CSF for 3 days had short spindles or elliptical shapes and a markedly larger nucleus, as detected by use of nuclear staining, compared with that of the control cells. Bar = 50 μm.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Furthermore, actively phagocytosing macrophages were detected. Activated macrophages cocultured with mouse erythrocytes had a strong phagocytic capacity. Phagocytosed mouse erythrocytes caused bulges in the macrophages, which appeared as red areas in the macrophages, whereas nonphagocytosed erythrocytes were distributed in the medium (Figure 2). Spindle-shaped cells appeared to have stronger phagocytic activity than did elliptical cells with respect to the ability to engulf mouse erythrocytes.

Figure 2—
Figure 2—

Photomicrographs of chicken macrophages isolated from peripheral blood and cultured for 3 days with HD-11M-CSF (A) or L929M-CSF (B) and then coincubated with mouse erythrocytes for 1 to 3 hours. Notice that phagocytosed mouse erythrocytes are evident within the macrophages. Bar = 50 μm.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Transcription of CD11b

The CD11b gene is largely expressed on the surface of mature macrophages24,25; thus, CD11b is a distinctive gene for identifying macrophages. Results of the qRT-PCR assay indicated that mature macrophages derived from peripheral blood or bone marrow and stimulated with HD-11M-CSF or L929M-CSF could transcribe CD11b (Figure 3).

Figure 3—
Figure 3—

Photographs of agarose gels after electrophoresis of segments of the CD11b gene (GenBank accession No. KT337505) after chicken macrophages were activated by various stimuli. Lanes were as follows: M, DNA marker; lane 1, macrophages from bone marrow cultured in HD-11M-CSF; lane 2, macrophages from bone marrow cultured in L929M-CSF; lane 3, macrophages from peripheral blood cultured in HD-11M-CSF; and lane 4, macrophages from peripheral blood cultured in L929M-CSF.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Transcription of BF and BL by activated chicken macrophages

Transcription of BF and BL by mature macrophages was assessed after cells were activated by culture with L929M-CSF for 3 days followed by coculture with LPS or mouse erythrocytes for 2 days. Results of the qRT-PCR assay indicated that transcription of Ii1 and Ii2 (isomers of chicken invariant chain, a chaperonin of MHC class II molecules),36 BFa, and BLb was significantly (P = 0.01) less for these cells, compared with transcription for the unstimulated control cells (Figure 4). However, the expression for cells activated by the soluble stimulus LPS was significantly (P = 0.01) greater than for cells activated by the granular stimulus mouse erythrocytes. This indicated that the type of stimulus also affected transcription of BF and BL.

Figure 4—
Figure 4—

Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription for MHC and Ii chaperone genes, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium (no stimulus [control sample]; black bars) or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes (gray bars) or LPS (white bars). Values reported represent results for 3 replicates. *Value differs significantly (P = 0.01) from the value for the control sample.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Cell types of mature macrophages activated by various stimuli

Transcription of macrophage-distinctive immune-active genes was measured. Results indicated that gene transcription of M1-distinctive cytokines by LPS-activated cells was significantly (IL2, IL6, IL12, and iNOS, P = 0.01; TNFα, P < 0.05) higher, but gene transcription of IL1β was significantly (P < 0.05) lower, than that of unstimulated control cells (Figure 5). However, transcription patterns for genes differed in cells stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes. Only the gene for the M2-distinctive cytokine (TGF-β) was significantly (P = 0.01) increased in LPS-stimulated cells, whereas genes for other cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in mouse erythrocyte–stimulated and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells) were significantly reduced (Figure 6).

Figure 5—
Figure 5—

Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription of genes for M1-distinctive cytokines, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes or LPS. †Value differs significantly (P < 0.05) from the value for the control sample. See Figure 4 for remainder of key.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Figure 6—
Figure 6—

Mean ± SD relative quantity of transcription for genes of M2-distinctive cytokines, compared with results for the gene for GAPDH, in chicken macrophages incubated with RPMI 1640 medium or stimulated by incubation with mouse erythrocytes or LPS. See Figure 4 for remainder of key.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 79, 12; 10.2460/ajvr.79.12.1306

Discussion

Results of the present study indicated that the type of stimulus influenced the type of cytokine gene and quantity of transcription in polarized chicken macrophages. Characteristics of chicken macrophages in the study reported here were similar to those of mammalian macrophages. In the present study, methods for isolating chicken macrophages derived from bone marrow and peripheral blood and detection of morphological features and phagocytic function were described. Use of these methods enabled assessment of the biological characteristics of chicken macrophages. Results indicated that for the culture conditions of the present study, chicken macrophages could be activated to display a classic fusiform phenotype and to express distinctive CD11b and cytokine genes. This evidence suggested that there would be no phenotypic differences between avian and mammalian macrophages.

Transcription of chicken BF and BL genes was reduced, but that of cytokine genes was increased, in activated macrophages. In addition, transcription of the gene for IL-1β was significantly reduced. Macrophages are multifunctional; these cells can phagocytose materials, present antigens, and regulate immune responses via the direct secretion of cytokines. During antigen presentation, MHC class I and II molecules have an important role for recognizing, transporting, and presenting exogenous and endogenous antigen peptides to T cells.9,10 Results for the present study indicated that chicken macrophages activated by LPS or mouse erythrocytes could transcribe immune genes, including the BF, BL, and CD11b genes and genes for cytokines. However, transcription was not increased for all genes: the quantity transcribed for BF and BL was markedly reduced. In contrast, macrophages at various stages of activation performed a primary function rather than several synchronous tasks; thus, gene transcription of classic MHC genes for presenting antigen peptides and genes of the various cytokines responsible for regulating the immune response should exhibit diversity by downregulating MHC molecules26 and upregulating distinctive cytokines.37

The diversity of distinctive cytokines secreted by LPS- and mouse erythrocyte–activated macrophages revealed plasticity and complexity with regard to polarization. Results of the present study indicated that chicken macrophages were activated by simulation with LPS or mouse erythrocytes and consequently formed the M1 or M2 phenotypes, which secreted cytokines with distinctive profiles. Lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of inflammation and M1 polarization7,16; in mice, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and iNOS2 can be upregulated by the M1 phenotype, and IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 can be downregulated by the M2 phenotype.10,16 Macrophage polarization is also influenced by other factors. In vitro culture conditions, the receptor for advanced glycation end products,38 proteases,39 chemerin15,15 and even age40 can influence polarization. Multiple factors affect the plasticity and complexity of polarization, which depend on the pathogens encountered and the phase of inflammation and do not correspond to the unitary M1-versus-M2 polarization model.7 Therefore, the present study described differences among these cytokine genes regarding the type of cytokine and quantity transcribed.

Acknowledgments

Supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (award Nos. 31372417 and 31572496).

The authors declare that there were no conflicts of interest.

ABBREVIATIONS

CSF

Colony-stimulating factor

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

M-CSF

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

qRT-PCR

Quantitative reverse transcription PCR

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Th

T helper

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Footnotes

a.

Hyclone, Thermo, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

b.

Gibco, VIC, Australia.

c.

Lymphocyte separation liquid, TBD, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

d.

Life Technologies Corp, Boston, Mass.

e.

IX71, Olympus, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

f.

Beyotime, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

g.

RNAiso Plus, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

h.

Trizol, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

i.

RNase inhibitor, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

j.

PrimeScript 1st cDNA strand, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

k.

Oligo, version 6.0, Life Technologies, Boston, Mass.

l.

DNAStar, version 5.0, DNASTAR Co, Madison, Wis.

m.

EX Taq DNA polymerase, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

n.

LA Taq, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

o.

DNA gel extraction kit, Dongsheng Biotech, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

p.

Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

q.

Sengon, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

r.

StepOne PLUS real-time system, Applied Biosystems, Boston, Mass.

s.

Primer Express, version 3.0, Applied Biosystems, Boston, Mass.

t.

2* SYBR Green premix Ex Taq II, Takara, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

u.

Excel, version 2013, Microsoft Corp, Redmond, Wash.

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Appendix

Primers used to assess gene expression in activated chicken macrophages.

GeneSequence (5′→3′)Amplified sequenceAmplicon size (bp)
Ii1F–GGTGAAAGCCAAGTAGAAGIi segment138
 R–TCAGGAAAGCAAGGTAAG  
Ii2F–AGCAGAATACAATCCCAGCGIi segment109
 R–TCACCGTTCTCATCGCACT  
BFαF–GTGGAATACGGGAAGGCTBFα segment138
 R–CCCAGGTGTGGTAGGTG  
BLβF–GAGCGTGGAGCCCAAGGTGBLβ segment69
 R–GCCAGACGGTCGGTTTCGG  
GAPDHF–CAGAACATCATCCCAGCGTCGAPDH segment133
 R–GGCAGGTCAGGTCAACAAC  
IL1βF–GCATCAAGGGCTACAAGCTCIL1β segment131
 R–CAGGCGGTAGAAGATGAAGC  
IL2F–GCAACGCTAATGACTACAGCTIL2 segment135
 R–AGTTGGTGTGTAGAGCTCGA  
IL6F–CTCCTCGCCAATCTGAAGTCIL6 segment100
 R–CCCTCACGGTCTTCTCCATA  
IL10F–AGAGATGCTGCGCTTCTACAIL10 segment189
 R–TCGAACGTCTCCTTGATCTGC  
IL12F–TATCCCAAGACCTGGAGCACIL12 segment133
 R–GCCCAGTCTTTGGAATCTGA  
iNOSF–ATCCTGGAGGTCCTGGAAGAGTiNOS segment84
 R–CCTGGGTTTCAGAAGTGGCA  
TNFαF–ACTCAGGACAGCCTATGCCAACATNFα segment172
 R–CACGACAGCCAAGTCAACGC  
TGFβF–CACAATGAGTTGGGCATTTGTGFβ segment106
 R–GGAACTCTGCTCGAAACAGG  
CD11bF–CAAATCCCGCTCCGAAAGGCCD11b segment237
 R–GCTCCCAAACAACCACCCCAC  

F = Forward. R = Reverse.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Chen (fang7828887@126.com).