Hip dysplasia, a common orthopedic disease of medium- and large-breed dogs, includes subluxation of the hip joint, leading to osteoarthritis.1–4 Several of the surgical procedures used to manage hip dysplasia are aimed at decreasing or eliminating subluxation of the hip joint to prevent or slow the development of osteoarthritis.1,5 Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis surgically induces premature closure of the pubic portion of the ischiopubic symphysis without affecting growth of the caudal portion of the symphysis and the acetabula.6–8 When JPS is performed at an early age, it results in ventrolateral rotation of the acetabular rims, thereby increasing dorsal coverage of the femoral heads and potentially decreasing subluxation of the hip joint.6,7,9,10
The geometry of the pelvis and acetabula has an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia in both dogs and human patients.2,6,11 Pelvic conformation has been evaluated radiographically and with cross-sectional imaging (eg, CT). The accuracy of those methods is negatively affected by variability in patient positioning and the imaging protocol used.2,6,9 For example, geometric analysis of the acetabula is particularly challenging when 2-D radiographic or CT images are used.2–4 Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images eliminates the shortcomings of 2-D images and offers a more detailed and accurate representation of skeletal changes.2,4,12 In human medicine, 3-D reconstruction of the pelvis and acetabula has led to advances in the understanding of hip dysplasia in children, aided in the reconstruction of acetabular fractures, and improved preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty.4,13–15
The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the 3-D geometry of canine pelves and to characterize JPS-induced geometric changes by comparing the pelvic configuration between littermates that did and did not undergo the procedure. We hypothesized that JPS would alter the HPAA, ALO, DARA, and size (area, width, and height) of the pelvic canal but would not alter acetabular inclination or retroversion.
Computed tomography was performed at the Blue Pearl Specialty & Emergency Pet Hospital in Sandy Springs, Ga.
Angle of lateral opening
Dorsal acetabular rim angle
Hemipelvis acetabular angle
Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis
Luminys 2000s CT scanner, Picker International Inc, Cleveland, Ohio.
3-matic, research version 10.0, Materialise, Plymouth, Mich.
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