Book Reviews

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Ethology and Animal Behavior

Michael D. Breed, PhD

250 pages. 2017. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-809265-1. Price $39.95.

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Ethology and Animal Behavior is a valid addition to the animal behavior literature. This book provides readers with a chronological review of select milestones in the history of animal behavior. Each of the 80 short well-referenced essays summarizes an important discovery or theory that contributed to change in the field of animal behavior. A vast range of topics is covered, from the role of art in the popularization of animal behavior to the revolution brought by behavioral genetics and epigenetics and to natural selection, animal emotion, behavioral observation method, sociobiology, neuroscience, and many others. Dr. Breed assigns each milestone an impact score from 1 to 10 that reflects its contribution to contemporary animal behavior sciences.

The book also explores the complex interaction between animal and human behavior sciences. Humans have domesticated animals to shape their behavior. Domestication strongly influenced human evolution and society, but scientists struggled to avoid anthropomorphizing animals, denying for centuries that animals could feel emotions. Only in the early 1990s did scientists start to recognize fear and pain in animals.

This book does not provide a review exhaustive enough for readers to gain a satisfactory understanding of the topics discussed; therefore, it is not a book for neophytes who want to expand their knowledge of animal behavior science. However, animal behavior professionals will find this book a valid aid in understanding how their specialty relates to the history of behavior sciences. It is an easy and interesting read with many valuable inputs, thoughts, and ideas. This book is fairly priced given the quality of the information delivered and the thorough research behind it.

Reviewed by Carlo Siracusa, DVM, PhD, DACVB

University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pa

The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions With People (2nd edition)

James Serpell, PhD

416 pages. 2017. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-69934-2. Price $45.14

I am pleased to see the long overdue second edition of The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions With People. The first edition, which was published more than 20 years ago, is one I often go to for evidence-based information on domestic dogs. Fortunately, partially owing to the impact of the first edition of this book, scientific journals have embraced research in this area. The second edition has 4 sections (Origins and Evolution; Behavior, Cognition and Training; Dog-Human Interactions; and Life on the Margins) and 19 chapters.

Each of the 19 chapters was written by a different group of authors. The chapters are essentially review articles that condense and summarize the scientific literature. For those familiar with the previous edition, the original chapters have been updated by the incorporation of information from recently published research. Most of these updated chapters were written by the authors of the original chapters along with additional collaborators, and thus new perspectives are presented. This edition also includes several new chapters that address canine learning, population management, links between domestication and genetics, and how dogs influence wildlife. Consequently, the second edition has been expanded by approximately 60%, compared with the first edition.

Some concepts are covered in more than 1 chapter, and because each chapter was written from the perspective of a different group of authors, some of the information presented occasionally appears contradictory. However, I view that as a strength rather than a weakness because it provides readers an opportunity to appreciate specific topics from various points of view.

In conclusion, I highly recommend this book. Although it is not meant to be a clinical reference, I believe it should be essential reading for anyone who wants a concise, state-of-the-art reference on canine science. Like the first edition, I am certain this edition will be one of the books in my reference library that I reach for time after time.

Reviewed by Gerrard Flannigan, DVM, MSc, DACVB

Carolina Veterinary Specialists

Greensboro and Huntersville, NC

Veterinary Embryology (2nd edition)

T. A. McGeady, P. J. Quinn, E.S. Fitzpatrick, M. T. Ryan, D. Kilroy, & P. Lonergan

386 pages. 2017. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-94061-7. Price $74.99.

The second edition of Veterinary Embryology is the best available source of current information on the topic. The content is comprehensive, authoritative, logically organized, and amply complemented with color illustrations that are generous in size and generally effective in highlighting stages of embryo development. Those illustrations are also available from a companion website.

The book consists of 28 chapters that address embryology history, cell division, gametogenesis, fertilization, early embryonic development, cell signaling, stem cells, embryo mortality and related genetic and environmental factors, fetal membranes, placentation, development of the various body systems, and assisted reproductive technologies. Each body system–specific chapter includes key points, color illustrations, and a comprehensive description of developmental stages and definitive anatomy, gestational event timing for each species, gene expression proteins, transcription factors and signaling agents responsible for underlying cell differentiation, and developmental anomalies specific to particular species or breeds along with associated genetic factors. Tables in the book contain a wealth of information regarding embryo features and gestational timing for various domestic animals. Additionally, the book highlights molecular details of gene expression, stem cell lineage related to twinning, and a comprehensive description of hematopoietic development.

This book is a good value for the price. I highly recommend it as the best available resource for information related to veterinary embryology. As a textbook, students will appreciate the key points and color illustrations, but the comprehensive detail of the text may present a headwind for veterinary students, who typically must study embryology under time constraints.

Reviewed by Thomas F. Fletcher, DVM, PhD

University of Minnesota

Saint Paul, Minn

Atlas of Histology of the Juvenile Rat

George A. Parker, DVM, PhD, DACVP, DABT & Catherine A. Picut, VMD, DACVP, DABT

448 pages. 2016. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-802682-3. Price $140.00

Are villi expected in the colon of a young rat? In nursing rats, what intestinal segments have absorption vacuoles, and at what age do those vacuoles disappear? How do the eyes, brain, and endocrine and reproductive tissues of young rats mature in regard to microscopic anatomy and histomorphology?

Those questions and more are answered in the Atlas of Histology of the Juvenile Rat. Drs. Parker and Picut and 13 other experienced toxicological pathologists have created a histologic atlas that contains an abundance of details, which are usefully summarized, illustrated, and referenced. This atlas will be an important resource and reference for anyone involved in the field of rat (or rodent) pathology or interested in specific details and terminology for microscopic anatomic features of rodents with reference to changes that occur during the maturation of other species as well.

Although the histologic features of tissues from adult and aged laboratory rats and mice are well documented and especially familiar to toxicological pathologists, less information is available about the histologic features of juvenile animals. In studies involving juvenile animals, age-matched controls are usually not available between scheduled endpoints, and normal histologic features of maturing animals must be distinguished from effects of drugs or other interventions. This atlas is a definitive resource on the histomorphology of juvenile Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Descriptions and illustrations represent weekly time points from birth to 42 days old. Also included are > 700 high-resolution photomicrographs of tissues that were examined in nonclinical (preclinical) safety assessment and toxicological studies.

The book is organized by system into 14 chapters, plus an introduction that includes discussion and correlation of postnatal developmental stages in rats and humans. Chapters are organized in parallel, beginning with clear concise descriptions of embryonic and postnatal development and microscopic anatomy of the tissues. Key features are presented chronologically, with attention to sexual dimorphisms and differences between time points. The high-resolution, high-quality photomicrographs of histologic specimens with consistently comparable coloration, size, proportion, magnifications, and annotations are a credit to the contributors and illustration editor and facilitate recognition of changes relevant to maturation. Important features are highlighted by photomicrographs of H&E-stained histologic specimens, bone marrow cytologic specimens, intestinal specimens prepared by the Swiss roll protocol, and other tissue specimens stained with various histochemical (eg, Masson trichrome, Luxol fast blue, and periodic acid–Schiff) and immunohistochemical (eg, CD3, CD45RA, and Ki67) techniques.

Recognition of different responses to drug or chemical exposures in children and young animals led to legislation, such as the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act in 2002 and the Pediatric Research Equity Act, and an increase in pharmaceutical safety assessment for pediatric or juvenile populations in 2003, all of which led to a need for resources on the histomorphology of juvenile animals. Although this atlas is an essential resource for the toxicological community, it is also relevant for pathologists, veterinarians, and anatomists because of the tremendous detail, precise terminology, and excellent images, along with historical and contemporary references.

In addition to the print version, the chapters and figures from this atlas can be purchased from Science-Direct and Virtual Microscope, which may be cumbersome for some. However, the e-book version is easily navigated with free e-book software, such as Adobe digital edition, and is useful to have open on a desktop workstation or notebook computer when reviewing specimens with a micrsoscope.

Reviewed by Cory Brayton, DVM, DACLAM, DACVP

Johns Hopkins University

Baltimore, Md

Drug Safety Evaluation (3rd edition)

Shayne Cox Gad, PhD, DABT

886 pages. 2017. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-119-09739-6. Price $350.00.

The stated goal of the third edition of Drug Safety Evaluation is to present an all-inclusive practical guide of how the safety of human drugs and biologics are evaluated. One just needs to peruse the table of contents to see that this book provides a comprehensive overview of human drug development as it applies to safety. The content encompasses the regulatory process for small molecules and biologics, and includes detailed descriptions of the toxicological tests that can be conducted and how the results are evaluated. The book also covers specific areas of interest such as pediatric product safety assessment, occupational toxicology, and postapproval safety evaluation. Although the content is clearly meant for human pharma, this book will be useful to those involved in safety evaluations for veterinary drug development. The in-depth explanations of how data are evaluated from toxicity studies conducted for human drug development can be applied to animal drug development. The chapter on statistics in pharmaceutical safety assessment is particularly useful, with assumptions and limitations provided for each of the common statistical tests. Appendix E provides an overview of toxicity data for common vehicles used in drug formulations, with dog and some cat data included. This comprehensive book on drug safety evaluation is a welcomed addition to my reference library.

Reviewed by Lesley C. Rausch-Derra, DVM, MS

Scout Bio Inc

Kansas City, Mo

One Health Case Studies: Addressing Complex Problems in a Changing World

Susan Cork, BVSc, BPhil, PhD; David Hall, DVM, PhD; & Karen Liljebjelke, DVM, PhD

378 pages. 2016. 5M Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-910455-55-5. Price $51.54.

One Health Case Studies: Addressing Complex Problems in a Changing World is an insightful thesis on the many applications of the one-health approach to solving complex problems. Readers familiar with one health may find the introduction a bit repetitive, but it is worth reading. The authors present one-health concepts in a unique breakdown of categories, such as Systems and Disease, Environmental Complexity, Agricultural Sustainability, and Concepts and Knowledge Transfer.

The book contains an outstanding compilation of examples of one health in action, and it may very well become the definitive textbook for learning and teaching the one-heath concept. Each case study begins with an abstract that briefly outlines the scenarios and ends with a conclusion that reiterates the one-health principles it was meant to demonstrate.

In the case study on avian influenza, the authors provide readers with just the right amount of detail on the genomic characteristics of the virus so they can understand the complexity of the problem without needing to be a virologist to understand it. Moreover, unlike a scientific publication, the operational management of the problem is described in great depth.

The editors used a multisectorial approach to select content contributors, even though, as with most things one health, it is heavily weighted with animal-health experts. This textbook is well referenced and has extensive graphics to help illustrate one-health concepts in action. It is an insightful, thought-provoking, and comprehensive piece of work that is well worth the price for any medical professional.

Reviewed by Joseph F. Annelli, DVM, MS

One Health Coordination Center

Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA

Riverdale, Md

Animal Influenza (2nd edition)

David E. Swayne, DVM, PhD, DACVP, DACPV

634 pages. 2017. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-90746-7. Price $189.99.

The second edition of Animal Influenza is an update to the well-known first edition. Although the scope of this edition has been broadened to include influenza viruses of mammals such as pigs, horses, dogs, and bats, this book remains a classic reference focused primarily on avian influenza. Similar to the first edition, this edition contains essential information regarding influenza viruses and the complexities of global viral evolution, vaccinology, zoonoses, and experimental models that is understandable and accessible to veterinary practitioners, animal-health officials, graduate students, and researchers. For example, the text is generally clear with well-described explanations of the genetic diversity of viruses and excellent discussions regarding immunologic concepts and pathogenesis. Each chapter represents the collective wisdom of many influenza experts. Readers will find many useful tables and figures for ready references and teaching materials.

The text begins with a description of aspects common to all animal influenza viruses, then transitions to specifically focus on the various classes of animals known to host influenza viruses. In keeping with the veterinarian's duty to promote both animal and human well-being, the text concludes with a description of experimental models of influenza virus infections as a means to elucidate their zoonotic potential.

Although my overall impression of this book is extremely positive, I feel it is important to point out that it lacks information regarding practical immunology and a summary of antibody responses expected to result from natural infections and vaccination, particularly for domestic poultry. Nevertheless, the authors have successfully improved the quality of an already good product. This edition has superb coverage of influenza topics, presents important concepts in a straightforward manner, and provides sound strategies and considerations for influenza control, diagnostics, and surveillance in multiple animal species. I highly recommend this book for your personal, laboratory, or school library.

Reviewed by Marie Culhane, DVM, PhD

University of Minnesota

Saint Paul, Minn