Book Reviews

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Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs (4th edition)

Mark G. Papich

900 pages. 2016. Saunders (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-323-24485-5. Price $79.95.

The fourth edition of Saunders Handbook of Veterinary Drugs is an update to previous editions and remains a concise source of information regarding drug therapy in small and large animals (with occasional dosages provided for avian and exotic pets). The advantages of this edition include its relatively small size and portability, the inclusion of conversion tables (eg, metric units and body surface area) inside the front cover, a combined index with both brand and generic names, a companion website with customizable client handouts, and appendices that cover topics such as the compatibility of various drugs with parenteral solutions and procedures for reporting adverse drug reactions. Individual drug monographs (which include drugs newer to veterinary use such as telmisartan) are divided into easy-to-access sections (eg, pharmacology and mechanism of action, indications for clinical use, and highlighted precautionary information), with frequent mention of supporting data from peer-reviewed veterinary literature as well as discussion of anecdotal use. Actual references are not listed either for information in the text or for drug dosages (which are generally limited to 1 or 2 recommendations as opposed to a list of a variety of dosage regimens). This may be a disadvantage for cases where appraisal of the primary information source would be useful in the selection of a treatment protocol; however, it is consistent with the stated purpose of the volume, which is to be a “concise, easy-to-use … handbook.” The book contains occasional typographical errors that may initially be confusing (eg, under high-dose enrofloxacin for UTI), but overall, it is up-to-date and well organized and will likely continue to be a useful clinical reference for practitioners and veterinary students.

Reviewed by Melissa Clark, DVM, PhD, DACVCP

Animal Medical Center

New York, NY

Small Animal ECGs: An Introductory Guide (3rd edition)

Mike Martin

156 pages. 2015. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-40973-2. Price $49.99.

The third edition of Small Animal ECGs: An Introductory Guide provides a great introduction to the basics of electrocardiography. It does an excellent job of describing the most common arrhythmias encountered in small animal veterinary medicine. This edition contains several improvements including a new chapter on Holter monitoring and a discussion of the mechanisms of certain arrhythmias. One of the most striking improvements in this edition is that the illustrations are now printed in color, which really enhances the diagrams and illustrations. Overall, this book does an excellent job of describing the most common arrhythmias encountered, with easy-to-follow key points highlighted. It is an excellent guide for readers interested in gaining a basic understanding of how to read ECGs and treat patients with arrhythmias.

Reviewed by Rob Sanders, DVM, MS, DACVIM

Michigan State University

East Lansing, Mich

Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy & Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat (2nd edition)

Donald E. Thrall & Ian D. Robertson

303 pages 2015. Saunders (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-323-31225-7. Price $194.00.

The second edition of the Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy & Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat provides veterinarians and veterinary students with a valuable resource for the evaluation of commonly observed radiographic variations of normal anatomy of dogs and cats. The first chapter discusses basic imaging principles including animal positioning, common orthogonal views that should be obtained for major body regions, radiographic terminology, and proper orientation of radiographs for reviewing. Additionally, that chapter contains useful tables and figures that summarize the ages at which ossification centers appear and physeal closures occur in both species. The remaining chapters are divided by area of interest (skull, spinal column, thoracic limbs, pelvic limbs, thorax, and abdomen). The radiographic images included in this book are of high quality, with the normal anatomy pointed out or outlined with solid or dotted lines. Some of the radiographic images are accompanied by corresponding CT images (2-D and 3-D reconstructions) to help readers understand the orientation of the anatomy on the image.

The discussion of normal anatomic variants makes this book stand out from other radiographic references for dogs and cats. As a board-certified veterinary radiologist who works closely with general practitioners, the images and text provided in this book answer many of the questions I am asked when practitioners are trying to decide whether an observed structure is of clinical importance. Although this book is titled an atlas, each figure and chapter contain a substantial amount of text to describe the images and what causes normal variations. This book will be a useful reference for anyone who interprets radiographs and is frequently faced with making decisions about the importance of specific radiographic findings.

Reviewed by Jennifer Grimm, DVM, MS, DACVR

Hampden Family Pet Hospital

Englewood, Colo

Fundamentals of Canine Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

Etsuro E. Uemura

424 pages. 2015. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-77176-1. Price $99.99.

Fundamentals of Canine Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology is a welcome addition to the ever-growing neuroanatomy and neurophysiology library. This book is a good resource for veterinary students and clinicians and will provide them with a brief overview of many aspects of neurology. It is straightforward yet comprehensive, and not only reviews the structure and function of the nervous system but also describes the clinical application of the information provided.

The book contains 22 chapters with access to a companion website. The author provides self-evaluation questions and a list of additional references for further reading at the end of each chapter. The illustrations, photographs, photomicrographs, and MRI images are used in an effective manner and are well placed throughout the text. This is one of few books that provides a good review of neuroanatomy and discussion of practical neurology with accompanying images.

The book is reasonably priced and will be a good edition to the libraries of both general practitioners and veterinary students. I definitely recommend this book for students or clinicians who desire more knowledge of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the canine nervous system.

Reviewed by Stephanie Kube, DVM, DACVIM

Veterinary Neurology and Pain Management Center of New England

Walpole, Mass

Epidemiology for Field Veterinarians: An Introduction

Evan Sergeant & Nigel Perkins

311 pages. 2015. CAB International. ISBN 978-1-84593-683-9. Price $145.00.

Epidemiology consists of complex sets of ideas relating to how we think about health and disease in human and animal populations. Therefore, composing an action-oriented textbook that easily explains concepts as abstract as causation or misclassification bias requires innovation. Epidemiology for Field Veterinarians: An Introduction passes the test for a good introductory textbook that adequately explains the depth, breadth, and width of the various applications of epidemiology in both regulatory and contemporary veterinary practice settings.

The book consists of 15 chapters that emphasize key competencies and knowledge areas expected of practicing veterinarians. These include disease outbreak investigations, evaluation and use of diagnostic tests, population sampling techniques, data collection and management, animal health surveillance and evaluation, and an introduction to statistical thinking. Readers are also introduced to advanced epidemiological tools such as risk analysis and the application of geographic information systems (ie, spatial epidemiology) in animal health research.

The most appealing aspects of this book are its organization and well-structured chapters, which make it easy to read. A cheaper version of the book is available electronically for convenient on-the-road access with portable e-readers. A major drawback of the book is the lack of a chapter dedicated to the increasingly important use of molecular epidemiology techniques (eg, gene sequencing) in understanding the pathogenesis and genetic basis of animal diseases. The lack of a companion website that allows readers access to the data used in the examples discussed in the book is another limitation. Nevertheless, this book is a great reference.

Although the target audience for the book is practicing veterinarians with a presumed lack of prior formal training in epidemiology, students, educators, and other scientists interested in research and clinical topics relevant to animal health, disease ecology, and food safety will find this book to be an invaluable resource.

Reviewed by Patrick Pithua, BVM, PhD

University of Missouri

Columbia, Mo

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife: Challenges in Agriculture, Conservation, and Public Health

Michele Jay-Russell & Michael P. Doyle

254 pages. 2016. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-24440-2. Price $149.00.

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife: Challenges in Agriculture, Conservation, and Public Health is a well-written hardcover textbook that will be an excellent practical reference for wildlife and food safety specialists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, and veterinarians. The purpose of the book is to share information and insights into emerging topics related to wildlife and food safety, and the authors have accomplished that purpose in an excellent manner.

The book consists of 11 chapters written by multiple authors that cover the entire range of potential pathways for transmission of foodborne pathogens from wildlife to food products. Each chapter contains an extensive list of references. A wide range of important topics are discussed, such as an overview of foodborne pathogens in wildlife populations, microbiological hazards of wild birds and free-range chickens, molecular tools for monitoring and source-tracking Salmonella spp in wildlife and the environment, and a one health approach to wildlife and food safety. The book also has an informative chapter regarding the European perspective on the transmission of foodborne pathogens at the wildlife-livestock-human interface. Comprehensive tables are provided that summarize the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles and the context, transmission modes, and risk factors for food system–associated disease events.

The authors of this book have certainly attained their goal of advancing the understanding of wildlife's potential impact on food safety and public health. Every wildlife and food safety veterinarian should have this book in their library.

Reviewed by Daniel E. Lafontaine, DVM, MPH, DACVPM

HACCP Consulting Group, LLC

Bel Air, Md

Veterinary Parasitology (4th edition)

M. A. Taylor, R. L. Coop, & R. L. Wall

1,006 pages. 2016. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-67162-7. Price $229.99.

The first edition of Veterinary Parasitology was released in 1987 and was written from expanded class notes for students of veterinary parasitology and veterinarians. It has become a more detailed reference and textbook through the successive editions, and the intended audience for the fourth edition now includes university research groups, government service, and others involved with parasitic diseases in addition to veterinary students and veterinarians. I have used the previous editions of this book for classroom instruction and training research scientists because it provides a solid knowledge base. With each edition, new sections are added that provide detailed descriptions of advances in the field of veterinary parasitology. This edition is no different and contains many taxonomic changes and descriptions of parasite control strategies that have been accepted by the discipline. The book is divided into sections that include parasite descriptions, laboratory diagnostics, antiparasitics (including a good discussion of resistance and alternative control strategies), epidemiology, host resistance, and host-specific parasites. The sheer volume of this edition indicates the vast amount of material that veterinary parasitology encompasses. This edition still provides a broad and complete description of commonly encountered parasites as well as coverage of lesser-known parasites. At the beginning of the book, there is a general taxonomic classification section that is a good quick reference, and in part 2, the end of each chapter has a host-parasite checklist, which is also very helpful. Additionally, except for chapters 1 through 3, the beginning of each chapter has a brief list of contents; the absence of this list in chapters 1 through 3, whether intentional or not, makes it difficult to find specific information quickly in those chapters. Nevertheless, anyone who works or has an interest in veterinary parasitology should consider having this resource at their disposal.

Reviewed by James E. Miller, DVM, MPVM, PhD, DACVM

Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, La

Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans (2nd edition)

J. P. Dubey, R. Calero-Bernal, B. M. Rosenthal, C. A. Speer, & R. Fayer

481 pages. 2016. CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group). ISBN 978-1-4987-1012-1. Price $139.95.

The second edition of Sarcocystosis of Animals and Humans comprehensively reviews an important genus of parasitic protozoa that will interest veterinarians, budding classical parasitologists, and serious researchers. Veterinarians will find the book's organization, spectacular figures, and clinically relevant discussions time saving and on point. The authors describe the biology and life cycle of each species, which provides parasitology students with sort of a CliffsNotes version of a Sarcocystis textbook. The extensive single-source bibliography is a time-saver for any writers on the topic. Interested students who read the primary literature will gain a sense of the research climate that influenced each paper, topics that make parasitology fascinating, but they will only get an occasional glimpse of that in this book. Sarcocystis devotees may notice minor editing errors and the almost word-for-word reproduction of some papers. Truly interested researchers will appreciate the foundation and foreshadowing this book provides to the field of parasitology. The final chapters provide readers insight into the journeymen-generations transition to the coming era of molecular parasitology. The authors have preserved their lives' work, a cornerstone on which future proteomic scientists will build. As noted by these and other researchers, science advances when hypotheses withstand independent validation, or science is self-correcting. Some opinions concerning pathogenesis of disease, toxins, and genetic markers employed for phylogenetic and diagnostic purposes await new insights and independent validation.

Reviewed by Siobhan Ellison, DVM, PhD

Pathogenes Inc

Reddick, Fla

Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology: An Illustrated Guide

Chriss J. Vowles, Natalie E. Anderson, & Kathryn A. Eaton

237 pages. 2016. CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group). ISBN 978-1-4987-3632-9. Price $59.95.

Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology: An Illustrated Guide by Vowles, Anderson, and Eaton is the first book of its kind in the gnotobiotic world. As the title indicates, it is a good introduction to and reference guide for germfree and gnotobiotic programs. The book is compact with a spiral binding, which allows it to serve as a manual or easy-to-use reference in the work area.

The book is very thorough and detailed. It begins with a brief history of gnotobiotics that includes an overview of gnotobiotic technology, equipment, and terminology, which is very helpful for beginners. It then details personal protective equipment, sterilants, and sterilization levels and variations. Accompanying the text are numerous high-quality images that show equipment, procedures, and useful tips that are rarely found in peer-reviewed publications.

The authors focus their description on only the soft-sided, bubble-type Trexler isolators, which are used in their facility; they do not provide specific information on semirigid or other solid-sided isolators. However, the information provided in the early chapters applies to all equipment, and the latter chapters do contain some basic information that would be helpful to users of other types of equipment. Of course, as should be expected, there are numerous variations even among bubble-type isolators, so not all steps will precisely apply to all potential equipment. Chapter 6 begins the isolator setup and maintenance step section. That section is very detailed and describes each stage and includes photographs for most steps.

The next section covers subjects such as mouse transfer and shipping, class II biosafety cabinet work, rederivation, and testing. Each chapter within that section is detailed and includes supply lists and photographs. The concluding chapters cover record keeping and facility management and include sample forms and logs.

As the authors mention in the first chapter, many of the methods described have not changed since they were originally described in different reports by the Laboratories of Bacteriology at the University of Notre Dame in the 1940s and 1950s, and by other authors in articles published in the 1960s. However, the authors of this book have compiled and updated all of that information and added what they have learned from their own experience, which makes this book even more useful and a must have for institutions and individuals working with or interested in germfree or gnotobiotic technology.

Overall, this book is well written and very comprehensive. Clear photographs supplement the text throughout the book. It will be a useful reference especially for programs just beginning to work with germfree mice. Even established programs and those that use different equipment may benefit from some of the information included in this book. It could be instrumental for both facility and scientific staff members. Compared with other reference books, this book is a very good value given the amount of information it contains.

Reviewed by Anne M. MacLarty, DVM, MPH, DACVPM, DACLAM

Alfonso Gozalo, DVM, MS, DACLAM

William R. Elkins, DVM, DACLAM

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH Gnotobiotic Research Animal Facility

Bethesda, Md

Laboratory Animal Medicine (3rd edition) (American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Series)

James G. Fox, Lynn C. Anderson, Glen Otto, Kathleen R. Pritchett-Corning, & Mark T. Whary

1,708 pages. 2015. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-409527-4. Price $255.00.

The third edition of Laboratory Animal Medicine is greatly expanded from the previous edition and provides an almost encyclopedic reference that will be of value to senior laboratory animal medicine veterinarians and other more junior trainees who are preparing for the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) board-certification examination. It represents an update and compilation of the many species-specific volumes previously developed by the ACLAM. The major problem with the book is its size (over 1,700 pages) and enormous weight. Its price places the book out of range for most veterinary students, but for laboratory animal medicine trainees preparing for the board certification examination or practicing laboratory animal veterinarians, this book is an indispensable reference that is well worth the price.

An expansive range of topics is covered. The book opens with an excellent historical perspective on the development of the field of laboratory animal medicine and graduate laboratory animal medicine training programs. Historical legislation dealing with regulation of animal research is reviewed, followed by a discussion of contemporary laws and regulations that affect the use of research animals. In keeping with the all-inclusive organization of the text, international agencies and regulations concerning biohazards, chemical agents, radioactive materials, nucleic acids, and nanomaterials in research are discussed in detail.

The next portion of the book consists of chapters individually dedicated to the various species (mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, an extensive list of “other rodents”, woodchucks, chinchillas, rabbits, ferrets, dogs, cats, ruminants, swine, and nonhuman primates) used for research purposes. Each chapter includes sections on the historical use, value in research, anatomy and physiology, clinical chemistry reference values, husbandry, reproduction, and behavior of the species being discussed. Diseases are discussed and illustrated when appropriate. The sections highlighting the historical use of each species and the unique contributions of each species to specific disease pathophysiology or animal models are excellent. There is a discussion of the development of contemporary murine genetic strains, inbred strains, and recombinant inbred strains that provides an excellent and complete reference for mouse strains currently used in research. Importantly, a chapter is dedicated to microbiological quality control for rodents and lagomorphs complete with a discussion of current practices in biosecurity, maintenance of disease-free colonies, and microbiological surveillance.

This book also has chapters that describe the biology and diseases of amphibians, reptiles, zebrafish, Japanese quail, and zebra finches. The section on management of aquatic facilities, which includes a discussion of pathogen control and surveillance, will be particularly useful to those who manage such facilities.

Laboratory animal veterinarians will find the chapter on anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia valuable because the information is arranged by species and includes an extensive list of anesthetic agents, dosages, and induction methods. Especially useful is the analgesic therapy section, which includes a description of species-specific assessment of pain and discomfort and a list of appropriate analgesic drugs and dosages for each species. The chapter on techniques of experimentation includes an extensive list of techniques for many species arranged by body system. The chapter on biohazards and biocontainment includes information on the basics of containment and safety equipment. Also included in the book are informative chapters on zoonoses and occupational health for laboratory animal workers and a contemporary section on psychosocial issues such as the desensitization to euthanasia. There is a chapter on facility design and management. The last 2 chapters cover the behavior of laboratory animals and include discussions on the changing societal concerns for animal welfare, evaluating animal needs, and preventing behavioral problems.

The list of contributors to this book is extensive and includes innumerable experts in the field. The book brings together the expertise of many of our best minds and should contribute to a high standard of evidence-based medicine and animal care.

Reviewed by Angeline Warner, DVM, DSc

Tufts University

North Grafton, Mass

Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia (4th edition)

Paul Flecknell

321 pages. 2016. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-800036-6. Price $127.50.

The fourth edition of Laboratory Animal Anesthesia is a must have for any laboratory animal professional involved with anesthetizing research animals. This edition conveys information to new researchers who may have limited experience in the principles and practical applications of laboratory animal anesthesia and analgesia. Although the text is geared toward new investigators, it is also a valuable resource for seasoned investigators owing to the fact that this edition describes novel refinement techniques in anesthesia and pain management of laboratory animals.

The book is well organized into 5 chapters. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of anesthesia, which introduces readers to anesthetic equipment, routes of anesthetic induction, and properties of various anesthetic agents. The figure legends for photographs that depict equipment frequently include pertinent manufacturer information, which is helpful for readers interested in purchasing such products. New equipment, such as V-gel airways and warming racks for rodents, are described in this edition.

Compared with previous editions, the analgesia and postoperative care chapter has been expanded to include a more thorough discussion of postoperative pain assessment, with the addition of rodent grimace scales and other behavior-based pain scoring systems. New content regarding pain management has been added, including mention of sustained-release formulations of analgesics, such as buprenorphine-SR, which is now commercially available and being used fairly frequently in research settings.

Similar to previous editions, this edition provides helpful drug formularies in tables throughout the text. All figures are now in color, which is a change from previous editions. Overall, this book is an affordable essential reference for research personnel, laboratory animal veterinarians, and students.

Reviewed by Jenelle M. Izer, DVM, MS, DACLAM

Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center

Hershey, Pa

Swine in the Laboratory: Surgery, Anesthesia, Imaging, and Experimental Techniques (3rd edition)

M. Michael Swindle & Alison C. Smith

593 pages. 2016. CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group). ISBN 978-1-4665-5347-7. Price $159.95.

The third edition of Swine in the Laboratory: Surgery, Anesthesia, Imaging, and Experimental Techniques is a must-have textbook for any veterinarian who uses swine in a laboratory setting. There are 3 new chapters (Swine in Cancer Research, Use of Swine in Biomedical Research, and Necropsy on Research Swine) that are welcome additions. The chapter entitled Necropsy on Research Swine is particularly well written; the text is easy to follow, and there are numerous figures that make it one of the most useful chapters in the book. Several chapters that were present in the second edition have been substantially expanded for this edition, including the chapter on toxicology, which has been vastly improved. The same can be said for some of the chapters that describe surgical procedures.

No textbook is perfect, and this one does have a few shortcomings. Although infrequent, there are a few sections that would be more useful if they were more reflective of modern medicine. For example, bretylium and thiopental are no longer on the market, halothane is not commonly used, and because of genetic screening, malignant hyperthermia is only relevant from a historical standpoint. Published information on anesthetics and analgesics (eg, sustained-release buprenorphine, buprenorphine patches, and meloxicam) was overlooked. Because pigs are frequently used in minimally invasive surgery, it would be beneficial for future editions to provide discussions on concerns unique to laparoscopic procedures such as how to address increases in Paco2 and decreases in cardiac output subsequent to insufflation. Similarly, an expanded discussion on how to achieve anesthesia during cardiac bypass when inhalation agents cannot be used would be beneficial. Aside from those minor issues, this book remains the best textbook available for laboratory animal veterinarians who work with swine.

Reviewed by Kelly Garcia, DVM, PhD, DACLAM

University of Illinois at Chicago

Chicago, Ill

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