Book Reviews

BOOKS FOR VETERINARIANS

Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals: International Approaches to Residue Avoidance, Management, and Testing

Ronald E. Baynes & Jim E. Riviere

322 pages. 2014. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-24752-5. Price $150.00.

The objectives of Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals: International Approaches to Residue Avoidance, Management, and Testing are to present strategies to reduce drug and chemical residues in animal-derived food products and highlight new approaches that may impact drug residue management. The degree of success this book has in achieving those objectives likely depends on the requirements and perspective of individual readers.

The first 7 chapters address general drug residue assessment concepts such as relevant pharmacokinetic principles and the derivation of residue limits and withdrawal periods. Although regulatory approaches in both the United States and European Union are described, the description of the European Union approach has greater detail and more useful examples. Newer approaches such as population- or physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling are also described. These chapters are provided as an introduction to those concepts, not as a comprehensive review; however, the level of detail necessary to thoroughly understand these concepts can be found in the numerous references cited. It is likely these chapters will be of most interest to readers involved in regulatory or pharmaceutical fields, whereas they will be of minimal interest to food animal veterinarians or producers.

The subsequent 5 chapters provide species-specific overviews of drug residue issues. Each chapter typically describes the drugs licensed for or commonly used in a particular species as well as strategies to minimize drug residues in that species. Some residue avoidance approaches are more theoretical, whereas other chapters contain practical, concrete tips. For veterinarians or producers with extensive food animal experience and knowledge of quality-assurance programs, such information may not be new; however, the compiled references make each chapter a useful 1-stop source for drug residue avoidance tips.

Chapter 13 describes drug residue testing methods and contains an excellent summary of newer analytical methods for drug residues in multiple matrices. This chapter primarily focuses on confirmatory testing techniques such as mass spectrometry. Screening, or on-farm, testing strategies are not discussed in this chapter but are mentioned in some of the species-specific chapters. This book does not discuss the various types of residue monitoring strategies such as criteria used for targeted slaughter plant sampling or routine surveillance.

The final 2 chapters describe the history and role of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) and select chemical contaminant residue issues. Veterinarians should be aware that this book is not meant to replace contact with the FARAD service and does not contain specific withdrawal time recommendations.

Each chapter is written by a different author, and although similar themes emerge, each chapter has a different style, focus, and level of detail. The international perspective provided in some chapters is valuable though not always comprehensive. This book is an excellent resource for those interested in an overview of drug residue issues across multiple species. Readers with only a cursory interest in drug residue theory or that require only single-species drug residue information may find it less valuable.

Reviewed by Alan Chicoine, DVM, MSc, DACVCP

University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Canada

The Analysis of Biological Data (2nd edition)

Michael C. Whitlock & Dolph Schluter

818 pages. 2015. Roberts and Co. ISBN 978-1-936221-48-6. Price $99.00.

The second edition of The Analysis of Biological Data is intended to address key analytical approaches and fill in the gap pertaining to the handling of real data by biologists and health care providers. Basic concepts are essential for readers to comprehend the analytical need in addressing scientific questions on biological phenomena. According to the authors, this book “has strong emphasis on intuitive understanding to convey meaning rather than an overreliance on formulae.”

The primary strength of this book is the simplistic approach used to explain complex theories. Topics are well organized and complemented with practice problems suited for biology and medical researchers. With few exceptions, the data used in the examples are real and were obtained from scientific publications or the authors’ own databases; the sources for all important information are referenced. The simple techniques described for making good tables and graphs in this book will benefit readers in the preparation of their own scientific manuscripts. The strategies provided for investigating associations among categorical variables, assessing distributions and tests for numerical data, analyzing single and multiple factors, and performing meta-analyses have practical applications. The data sets used in the examples are available online, and readers can access them and practice the described principles at their own pace. The book is organized in a logical and thought-provoking manner that helps readers understand certain concepts in a nontechnical way.

The primary weakness of this book is that it is not intended for a broad audience that includes veterinarians. All of the examples provided for clinical trials involve human subjects. Although some of the other examples involve invertebrates, exotic animals, birds, and wildlife, the reader base for the book might be expanded if examples that involved domestic animal patients and clinical applications were provided. Moreover, the methods the authors refer to as modern would more appropriately be called advanced because they have been in existence for decades. I would not recommend this book as a primary statistics textbook for veterinary students; however, it would make a suitable supplemental reference.

Reviewed by Sangeeta Rao, BVSc, MVSc, PhD

Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colo

Basic Statistics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications (3rd edition) (Pharmacy Education Series)

James E. De Muth

821 pages. 2014. CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor and Francis Group). ISBN 978-1-4665-9673-3. Price $80.96.

The third edition of Basic Statistics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications consists of 21 chapters and 4 appendices and focuses on pharmaceutical statistical applications. The book is laid out well, and the organization follows an intuitive path, beginning with an introduction to statistics that is appropriate for entry-level students. Subsequent chapters provide a stepwise rational presentation of the fundamental principles of statistics. In my opinion, key chapters in this book include a chapter that contains a description of data presentation that is well supported with images and the chapters dedicated to describing the biggest challenges for a well-designed study such as sample size calculations and hypothesis testing. Other chapters (eg, Analysis of Variance, Correlation, and Chi Square Tests) are comprehensive and informative yet are easy to read, logical, and well referenced. Importantly, the text is supported by a fairly detailed index. Another important and thoughtful feature is a table of symbols located at the beginning of the book, which provides readers, particularly those with entry-level knowledge, a quick and easy reference. A major attribute of the text is the inclusion of problems and discussions that refer to and demonstrate the use of Excel and Minitab, 2 software packages commonly used for statistical applications and with which most readers will be familiar. The text is rich with images such as software screenshots that demonstrate key points. The well thought-out appendices are among the most helpful aspects of the book. In addition to the standard statistical tables, this book contains flow charts for selection of appropriate inferential tests to help direct both early and intermediate learners along with summary commands for Excel and Minitab. For educators, the text is supported throughout by relevant pharmaceutical problems, with answers included in an appendix. I found the appendix that focuses on statistical errors commonly encountered in the literature particularly enlightening. In summary, this book is an excellent choice for beginning or intermediate researchers interested in designing, implementing, and reporting statistically sound studies.

Reviewed by Dawn Boothe, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVCP

Auburn University Auburn, Ala

Handbook of Veterinary Pharmacology (2nd edition)

Walter H. Hsu

705 pages. 2013. Shinilbooks Co. ISBN 979-11-950643-2-8. Price $67.50.

The content of the second edition of the Handbook of Veterinary Pharmacology has been updated since the 2008 release of the first edition. This edition remains true to the book's original purpose, which was to provide a concise reference for pharmacological concepts that will be appreciated by veterinary students during their clinical training and clinicians, especially during their first few years of practice. The organization of this edition remains the same as that of the first, with a general overview of pharmacological principles applied to all agents followed by chapters that focus on areas of usage (eg, drugs that affect the nervous system, behavior-modifying drugs, and anesthetics) instead of specific disease states. It is effectively divided into areas of interest that allow readers to quickly find information about specific groups of drugs. For each agent discussed in each chapter, an extensive description of that agent's pharmacodynamics is provided that includes its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects. Although the author discusses drug uses and administration options, this book is not meant to be a treatment guide.

The liberal use of highlighted text and the test questions provided at the end of each chapter reinforce the feeling that this is a traditional textbook. Although this edition is well written and concise, it remains a reference book and it is intended for readers interested in improving their understanding of why drugs work the way they do. I recommend this book for the backpack of all veterinary students who are in the clinical training phase of their education and for the library of any clinician who wants a quick reference regarding the pharmacodynamics of the drugs they may use. It is not a formulary that contains doses for drugs or compares commonly used drugs, nor is it intended to be used to direct treatment. This book is meant to be used as a quick reference for important pharmacological properties of almost all commonly and not so commonly used drugs in veterinary medicine, and I feel that it meets that goal.

Reviewed by David Aucoin, DVM, DACVCP

VCA Antech Los Angeles, Calif

Sturkie's Avian Physiology (6th edition)

Colin G. Scanes

1028 pages. 2014. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-407160-5. Price $106.25.

Over the years, Sturkie's Avian Physiology has been the premier go-to book for information on any aspect of physical function and activities of domestic and wild birds. As knowledge of avian species has progressed, so have the editions of this book. The sixth edition is no exception. It has been thoroughly revised and updated and even offers a companion website, which features reference intervals for hematologic and serum biochemical variables. Although this book is relevant for veterinarians, graduate students, and poultry scientists, some of the chapters are extensive, if not overwhelming. For example, the first few chapters that discuss genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics may be best understood by clinical pathologists or research scientists. There are also chapters with information on flight, circadian rhythms, and migration, which will be of interest to ornithologists and behavioral or ecological biologists. Most veterinarians and advanced students will likely find the chapters on metabolism and the nervous, sensory, internal organ, endocrine, and reproductive systems to be the most useful for educational purposes and reference material.

Overall, this is a very comprehensive book that should be in the library of anyone interested in avian comparative physiology, veterinary medicine, and related fields. This book contains a wealth of information for the price, and I would have expected it to be much more expensive.

Reviewed by Gwen B. Flinchum, DVM, DABVP

All Bird Clinic of the Palm Beaches Lake Worth, Fla

The Atlas of Chick Development (3rd edition)

Ruth Bellairs & Mark Osmond

660 pages. 2014. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier). ISBN 978-0-12-384951-9. Price $200.00.

The third edition of The Atlas of Chick Development has been updated from the previous edition to include recent experimental and molecular research that has occurred in the field of morphogenesis. This edition contains 13 chapters and 232 plates. The chapters concisely summarize the development of the different body systems and sections of the chick embryo. Readers are clearly directed to figures within the text and to the plates throughout the chapters. Additionally, an extensive list of references is provided for readers to access further information if they so desire. A comprehensive glossary is located at the beginning of the book. The plates are a combination of black and white photographs of serial-sectioned embryos from the primitive streak to stage 39 (day 13 of incubation) and histologic-stained tissue sections. Although some of the photographs have been updated, many black and white photographs remain, some of which would benefit from improved resolution. The images of the scanning electron micrographs and some of the histologic sections are wonderful. The color plates of whole-mounted embryo specimens that were stained for skeletal elements nicely illustrate the ossification process.

The book has 3 appendices including the Normal Table of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (1975), which summarizes the early stages of cleavage and hypoblast formation; the Normal Table of Hamburger and Hamilton (1951; 1992), which summarizes all stages of chick development with abbreviated descriptions from the original; and Additional Normal Tables, which provide a list of references for developmental tables for ducks, pheasants, quails, and turkeys.

Although the intended audience for this book is primarily researchers who are using the chick embryo as a research model, developmental biologists, geneticists, molecular biologists, and poultry scientists will also find this book to be an excellent resource. For practicing poultry veterinarians, this book contains a good summary of egg formation and embryo development and will be most useful to those working in hatcheries or diagnostic laboratories. The histologic plates are a good reference for normal developmental anatomy for veterinary pathologists interested in this information.

Reviewed by Donna J. Kelly, DVM, DACPV

University of Pennsylvania–New Bolton Center Kennett Square, Pa

Leishmania: Current Biology and Control

Subrata Adak & Rupak Datta

241 pages. 2015. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230-52-2. Price $319.00.

Leishmania: Current Biology and Control focuses on the molecular mechanisms of primarily anthroponotic Leishmania donovani infection, as found on the Indian subcontinent. Leishmania donovani is a very close genetic cousin to L infantum, the zoonotic version of this parasite, and information gleaned from this system will likely be applicable to zoonotic infection. This book has chapters that describe the pathogenic mechanisms of leishmaniasis including cholesterol use, sequestration of iron, programmed cell death or apoptosis, immune evasion, vaccination, and antiparasitic drug resistance. Although this book is thorough and scientifically accurate, it is not particularly focused on the use of novel treatments or prophylactics that may have veterinary applications for the treatment and prevention of leishmaniosis. Consequently, it is unlikely that this book will be a particularly helpful addition to the library of most veterinarians because few practitioners need this molecular depth of knowledge to treat leishmaniasis, even though it appears to be an emerging disease of dogs in some areas of the United States.

Reviewed by Christine Petersen, DVM, PhD

University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa

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