Hip joint disease is the most commonly diagnosed joint disorder of dogs. Results of a study1 that involved almost 500,000 dogs examined at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States from 1980 through 1989 indicated that hip joint disease accounted for approximately 40% of all joint-related diseases diagnosed. Joint disease can result in loss of joint function and secondary degenerative changes and is associated with signs of pain.
Examination of hip joint function often includes evaluation of an individual's gait by observational or instrumented gait analysis.2,3 Instrumented gait analysis is an objective method for analyzing gait and involves the use of sophisticated equipment to measure both motion (kinematic analysis) and force (kinetic analysis). Although both kinematic and kinetic analyses have been used to evaluate dogs with hip joint disorders,4–7,a they have not, to our knowledge, been used simultaneously. A limitation in many of those studies4–7,a is that gait alterations for dogs with hip joint disease of varying severity was determined before and after some type of intervention or treatment but not before the disease developed. Also, a reliable model for hip joint disease and arthritis in dogs has not been developed and described. Consequently, the effect of pain on hip joint function and pelvic limb gait has not been evaluated, and the unique characteristics of lameness associated with hip joint disease have yet to be determined with instrumented gait analysis. A standardized model for induction of hip joint disease in dogs will be a useful tool for evaluating associated signs of pain and the efficacy of medical and surgical treatments.
Intra–articular administration of sodium urate crystals induces acute reversible synovitis and signs of pain in dogs, analogous to gout in human patients.8 In dogs, intra-articular injection of sodium urate has been frequently used to induce synovitis of the stifle joint,9–14 generally to assess the efficacy of various analgesics. To our knowledge, this method has not been used to induce synovitis in the hip joint.
The primary goal of the study reported here was to evaluate intra-articular injection of a suspension of sodium urate crystals for the induction hip joint synovitis in dogs. A secondary goal was to characterize the lameness and kinetic and kinematic gait changes associated with that model of hip joint synovitis. A reliable model for induction of hip joint synovitis in dogs will be a valuable tool for assessing the analgesic efficacy of both medical and surgical interventions for canine hip joint disease.
This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Hassan to the Cairo University Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy degree.
Supported by the Egyptian government as part of the Joint Supervision Program between Cairo University and Purdue University.
The authors thank Kris Kazmierczak and Dr. Darryl Dickerson for technical assistance and Drs. Ahmed S. Ahmed and Ashraf A. Shamaa for academic support of the Joint Supervision Program.
Peak vertical force normalized for body weight
Dynamic weight distribution
Coefficient of variation
Pressure sensitive walkway
Peak vertical force
Lincoln JD, Martinez SA, McCormick DJ, et al. Partial sensory denervation. A treatment for the clinical signs of coxofemoral osteoarthritis (abstr), in Proceedings, 34th Ann Conf Vet Orthop Soc 2007;54.
Dexdomitor, Orion Corp, Espoo, Finland.
Antisedan, Orion Corp, Espoo, Finland.
Uric acid sodium salt, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo.
Hydromorphone hydrochloride injection (2 mg/mL), West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp, Eatontown, NJ.
Rimadyl 100-mg caplets, Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY.
3/4-inch black LP SAT dots, VELCRO, Manchester, NH.
Animal Walkway System, Tekscan Inc, South Boston, Mass.
GL2 digital camcorder, Canon, Melville, NY.
Scout scA640-120gc, Basler AG, Ahrensburg, Germany.
Walkway System Software, version 7.0, Tekscan Inc, South Boston, Mass.
MATLAB, version 220.127.116.119 (R2010a), The MathWorks Inc, Natick, Mass.
Microsoft Office Excel 2007, Microsoft Corp, Redmond, Wash.
SPSS, version 21.0, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY.
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