Regular vaccinations are indispensable for combating infectious disease in commercial intensive poultry production by stimulating the innate immune response. However, growth inhibition can be induced because of greater proinflammatory cytokines resulting from the vaccinations.1–4 In addition, immunosuppressive effects of conventional vaccinations may be caused by apoptosis of blood leukocytes, decreased lymphocyte numbers in the secondary lymphoid organs, and immune cell apoptosis, which may result in unsuccessful vaccination.5 Apoptosis is a process of fundamental importance for regulation of the immune response as well as a defense mechanism, such as in immune reactions or when cells are damaged by pathogens or noxious agents.6–8 Persisting vaccine challenge can induce specific T-cell sequestration, dysfunction, and deletion at vaccination sites.9 Accordingly, conventional vaccinations in commercial poultry production may decrease performance and immune response and increase disease susceptibility and mortality rate.10–12 This can cause economic loss. As a result, investigating new and safe feed additives to modulate growth performance and immunity, especially in young chickens, which have an immature immune system, may provide new ways for improving health in poultry production.
As a natural product, RES (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin produced by plant species in response to environmental stress or pathogenic attack. In the immune system of various animals, RES inhibits cytokine production,13 and the NF-κB inhibitory activity and anti-inflammatory activity of RES have been confirmed.14,15 In addition, the immunomodulatory effect of RES includes suppression of lymphocyte stimulation as well as its effect on apoptosis of stimulated lymphocytes.16 Activation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis was also reduced in the presence of RES. Resveratrol appears to protect activated human B lymphocytes from apoptosis by upregulating the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2.17 Low-dose RES enhances the cell-mediated immune response of mice.18 Despite the apparent importance of RES effects on inflammatory response and immunomodulation, data concerning the relationships between RES and growth performance and immunologic function have not been reported in poultry. The objective of the study reported here was to examine the effects of RES supplementation on growth performance and immunity in chickens receiving conventional commercial vaccinations and to explore the potential mechanisms through which RES functions. Our hypothesis was that RES can improve growth by inhibiting cytokine production and upregulated immune response by protecting immunocytes against antigen-induced apoptosis in chickens that received conventional vaccinations.
Average daily gain
Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase
Growth hormone receptor
Avian influenza virus H5
Avian influenza virus H9
Insulin-like growth factor
Newcastle disease virus
Nuclear transcription factor-κB
Real-time quantitative PCR
Tumor necrosis factor-α
Zhengzhou LiNuo Biotech Co Ltd, Zhengzhou, China.
Qilu Animal Health Products Co Ltd, Jinan, China.
IL-1β kit, R&D Systems Inc, Minneapolis, Minn.
IL-6 kit, R&D Systems Inc, Minneapolis, Minn.
TNF-α kit, R&D Systems Inc, Minneapolis, Minn.
GH kit, JiangLai Biological Science and Technology Ltd Co, Shanghai, China.
IGF-1 kit, JiangLai Biological Science and Technology Ltd Co, Shanghai, China.
TRIzol, Promega Biotech Co Ltd, Beijing, China.
Promega Biotech Co Ltd, Beijing, China.
Sigma-Aldrich Biotech Co Ltd, Beijing, China.
Takara Biotech Co Ltd, Dalian, China.
7300 Real-Time PCR System, Applied Biosystems Inc, Foster City, Calif.
EPICS XL-MCL Flow Cytometer, Beckman Coulter, Brea, Calif.
WinMDI, version 2.8, Joe Trotter, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif.
BD Co, Franklin Lakes, NJ.
ZhongShanJinQiao Co Ltd, Beijing, China.
SPSS Statistics, version 17.0, SPSS Inc, Beijing, China.
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Ingredient composition and nutritional content of a basal diet fed to chickens.
|Soybean meal (%)||30.00|
|Soybean oil (%)||1.20|
|Dicalcium phosphate (%)||1.60|
|Vitamin and mineral premix (%)||1.00|
|Metabolizable energy (Kcal/kg)||3,150|
|Crude protein (%)||20.30|
|Total phosphorus (%)||0.60|
|Methionine + cystine (%)||0.85|
Vitamin-mineral premix provided the following per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A, 8,000 U; vitamin D3, 1,750 U; vitamin E, 15 U; vitamin B12, 10 μg; riboflavin, 5 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 10 mg; niacin, 20 mg; choline chloride, 400 mg; manganese, 70 mg; zinc, 70 mg; iron, 85 mg; copper, 8 mg; iodine, 0.5 mg; and selenium, 0.3 mg.
Primers used for quantification of GAPDH, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB, GH, and IGF-1 mRNA gene expression in a study of dietary reservatrol supplementation in chickens.
|Gene||Primer sequence||PCR product length|
|R: 5′TTGTGGGACAGGGTAGGG 3′|
|GHR||F: 5′GCGTGTTCAGGAGCAAAGCT 3′||132|
F = Forward. R = Reverse.