The use of inverse dynamics to describe gait is relatively new to veterinary medicine. Historically, research of gait in dogs relied on ground reaction force and kinematic data. Results of studies1,2 that evaluated kinetic changes, specifically ground reaction forces, provided objective measurements and helped elucidate the pathological gait of dogs with osteoarthritis in the hip and stifle joints. Investigators of other studies3,4 used kinematic descriptions to better define changes in gait associated with osteoarthritis in the hip and stifle joints of dogs. Inverse dynamics combines kinetic and kinematic data to provide a more comprehensive description of gait.
Studies5–9 to investigate the 3-D movement of the canine stifle joint are limited, and only 1 study6 investigated the 3-D movement of the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints. Other studies5,7,8 were conducted to describe the motion of the stifle joint alone, and it is difficult to compare results obtained by use of inverse dynamics with those studies because they involved the use of cadavers5 or invasive methods for data collection,7,8 which makes extrapolation of data for clinical application difficult. In only 2 studies6,9 were contemporary, clinically applicable methods used to obtain data to define the motion of the canine pelvic limb joints in 3 dimensions.
When considered separately, results of force plate and kinematic analyses cannot be used to comprehensively describe the joint kinetics (eg, joint movement and power) of dogs. Inverse dynamics combines kinetic, kinematic, and morphometric data to provide a more comprehensive description of the causes of movement patterns at both the joint and muscle group levels; however, it has been used infrequently to help describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb.10–15 Currently, investigators of only 1 study12 have reported morphometric data for the canine pelvic limb in conjunction with a comparison of the power distribution across the pelvic limb between Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds. The inverse dynamics method has been used to help elucidate the asymmetry, or handedness, of dogs10 and assess the gait of dogs before and after total hip replacement.14 To our knowledge, an inverse dynamics method has not been used to describe the 3-D movement of the canine pelvic limb. Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to describe the use of an inverse dynamics model novel to veterinary medicine to analyze the 3-D movement of the pelvic limbs of healthy dogs. This model estimates the center of rotation for each joint, which allows for a more accurate description of the motion in the hip, stifle, and hock joints in 3 planes.
Exchange3D LLC, New Orleans, La.
Autodesk 3D Max 9, San Rafael, Calif.
Excel 2007, Microsoft, Redmond, Wash.
Visual 3D, C-Motion Inc, Germantown, Md.
American Mechanical Technology Inc, Watertown, Mass.
Acquire 7.3, Sharon Software Inc, Dewitt, Mich.
Vicon Motion Systems Inc, Centennial, Colo.
Peak Performance Technologies Inc, Centennial, Colo.
Combine, Sharon Software Inc, Dewitt, Mich.
VB_V3D and VB_Tables, version 1.50, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
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