The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that approximately 90% of the world's 1.044 billion domestic ducks are in Asia. China and Vietnam account for approximately 75%, and most are distributed in China.1 Historically, Enterobacteriaceae infections are common in waterfowl, including ducks. The Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria that includes many familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter spp,2,3 which are not only potential microbial pathogens of waterfowl, but also an important threat to human health.4–6 β-Lactam antimicrobials are used in treatment and prevention programs for bacterial diseases of waterfowl. Several studies have been published regarding the use of amoxicillin,7–10 ampicillin,9,11,12 and ceftiofur13–15 to treat Enterobacteriaceae infections in waterfowl; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding the use of cefquinome.
Cefquinome is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antimicrobial that has been approved solely for veterinary use. It is highly stable when exposed to β-lactamases that are produced by most clinically important bacteria.16 The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in mice, dogs, pigs, and calves have been reviewed by Limbert et al,17 and additional studies18–22,a,b on the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in cattle, goats, horses, neonatal pigs, and fishes have been published. Favorable pharmacokinetic features of cefquinome, such as good absorption, high bioavailability, low protein binding, and primary elimination unchanged via the kidneys, are documented. Absorption of orally administered cefquinome is poor in laboratory species and cattle.16 However, no study on the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in poultry or waterfowl has been reported yet, to the authors' knowledge. Thus, to explore the possibilities of using cefquinome in the treatment of bacterial infections in waterfowl and developing a rational individual dosage regimen, the purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of cefquinome (5 mg/kg) following I V, IM, or PO administration in healthy Muscovy ducks.
Total area under the concentration versus time curve time curve
Area under the first moment concentration versus time curve versus time curve
Total body clearance of drug from plasma
Maximum drug concentration
High-performance liquid chromatography
Minimum inhibitory concentration
Time of maximum drug concentration
Apparent volume of distribution at steady state
Thomas E, Heuwieser W, Ehinger AM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in the bovine dry udder secretions used as the basis for a dose-titration of a new intramammary cefquinome formulation (abstr). J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2003;26:117.
Allan MJ, Thomas E. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome after parenteral administration of an aqueous solution in the horse (abstr). J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2003;26:104.
Foushan Duck Farm, Foushan, People's Republic of China.
Provided by Yuanzheng Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Shijiazhuang, People's Republic of China.
China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Guangzhou Chemical Reagent Factory, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.
HP-1100 HPLC system, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, Calif.
C18 Hypersil-BDS (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, Calif.
Practical pharmacokinetics program (an upgraded version of 3P87), Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
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