Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by the accumulation of CSF within the ventricular system of the brain. A positive correlation between hydrocephalus and short stature or slow growth velocity has been reported for humans.1 Therefore, it is possible that calves with hydrocephalus may have a short stature or reduced growth, which could result in economic loss. Although the criteria for a diagnosis of hydrocephalus in humans2 and some breeds of dogs3–7 have been reported, similar studies have not been performed in cattle. Diagnostic imaging modalities that have been used for the evaluation of cattle with diseases of the brain include CT8 and magnetic resonance imaging.9 Advantages of CT include rapid acquisition of high-quality images and relatively widespread availability. In addition, despite size constraints that limit the applications of CT in cattle, CT of the head is feasible in all patients.
Computed tomography3 and magnetic resonance imaging4–7 have been used for diagnosis and evaluation of dogs with hydrocephalus; the resultant images facilitate identification of alterations to normal ventricular anatomy and measurement of lateral ventricular size. Previous reports3–7 have established the normal anatomy of the lateral ventricles in dogs on the basis of measurement of Vh or VV values. However, to our knowledge, this information has not been reported for cattle. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported here were to evaluate lateral ventricular size in clinically normal calves by use of CT and to evaluate the relationships between Vh, VA, and VV.
Left ventricular height-to-right ventricular height ratio
Asteion Super 4, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan.
Virtual Place, AZE, Tokyo, Japan.
SPSS, version 12.0, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill.
Schroder H, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Nolte I. Comparative examination of the lateral cerebral ventricles of different dog breeds using quantitative computed tomography. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2006;119:506–511.
Esteve-Ratsch B, Kneissl S, Gabler C. Comparative evaluation of the ventricles in the Yorkshire terrier and the German shepherd dog using low-field MRI. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001;42:410–413.
Vullo T, Korenman E, Manzo RP, et al. Diagnosis of cerebral ventriculomegaly in normal adult Beagles using quantitative MRI. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:277–281.
Kii S, Uzuka Y, Taura Y, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lateral ventricles in Beagle-type dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:430–433.
Vite CH, Insko EK, Schotland HM, et al. Quantification of cerebral ventricular volume in English bulldogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:437–443.
Gordon PJ, Dennis R. Magnetic resonance imaging for the ante mortem diagnosis of cerebellar hypoplasia in a Holstein calf. Vet Rec 1995;137:671–672.