Vesicular stomatitis is a disease of cattle, horses, pigs, and small ruminants caused by a vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae that is commonly referred to as VSV.1–6 In addition, VSV infects a variety of wildlife species. This virus is transmitted by insects such as sand flies (Lutzomyia spp), black flies (Simulium spp), and biting gnats (Culicoides spp).7 It is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with the capacity to replicate in high numbers.1–6 Strains of VSV are grouped into 2 serotypes (New Jersey and Indiana).5,6
Economic losses resulting from infection with VSV infection are associated with direct impacts on milk production and weight loss in infected animals and indirect costs derived from the treatment of infected animals, quarantine of infected premises, and cancellation of public events such as horse shows and cattle auctions.3–6 For example, the economic impact of an outbreak of VS in the United States has been estimated at $100 to $200/cow and a mean loss of $15,565/ranch infected with VSV.8,9 This disease, which is considered one of the most important diseases included in a list of differential diagnoses when examining animals with disease of the feet and oral cavity, is endemic in northern South America, Central America, and southern Mexico, with outbreaks being reported every year throughout these regions.1,3,6 In contrast, VSV is not endemic in the United States. In addition, outbreaks of VS typically occur in the United States only every 5 to 10 years.1,6
It is believed that the risk for an outbreak of VS in an endemic region is associated with environmental conditions that promote or prevent VSV transmission. Typically, the highest incidence of VS coincides with years that are warmer and wetter, compared with the incidence in cooler and drier years.4,6 Risk for VSV transmission also appears to be associated with the elevation at which a susceptible population of animals is located. In a study10 conducted in Costa Rica, the odds of being seropositive for antibodies against VSNJV in cattle herds located at elevations of 500 to 1,500 m above sea level were 3.6 times as high as those for cattle herds located at elevations < 500 m above sea level. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of the design of that study,10 it is possible that unmeasured variables may have affected the results. Prospective studies conducted in the United States11 and El Salvador12 in which investigators used sentinel animals did not explicitly explore the association between elevation and seroconversion rates. The purpose of the study reported here was to estimate the time of seroconversion to VSNJV in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico and to determine the factors associated with an increase in VSV transmission.
New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación, Mexico City, D F, Mexico.
SPSS, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill.
JMP software, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.
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McCluskey BJ, Salman MD, Martínez GE, et al. A 3-year pilot study of sentinel dairy herds for vesicular stomatitis in El Salvador. Prev Vet Med 2003; 58:199–210.
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World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Available at: www.oie.int/eng/normes/mmanual/2008/pdf/2.01.19_VESICULAR_STOMITIS.pdf. Accessed Mar 25, 2009.
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Comer JA, Corn JL, Stallknecht DE, et al. Titers of vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey serotype, in naturally infected male and female Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Georgia. J Med Entomol 1992; 29:368–370.
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Perez de Leon AA, Tabachnick WJ. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Entomol 2006; 43:323–329.
Mead DG, Maré CJ, Ramberg FB. Bite transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) to laboratory mice by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). J Med Entomol 1999; 36:410–413.
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Corn JL, Comer JA, Erickson GA, et al. Isolation of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype from phlebotomine sand flies in Georgia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1990; 42:476–482.
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