Many biomechanical studies on the canine hind limb have been reported in recent decades. These studies assist veterinarians in understanding biomechanical maneuvers and facilitate evaluation of treatment effects. Gait analysis is a modern, in vivo noninvasive approach to biomechanical analysis that has been applied to canine hind limb studies.1–6 However, compared with the extensive 3-D kinematic measurements in human subjects,7,9 most studies2, 10–13 on canine hind limbs have focused on 2 dimensions. True 3-D gait analysis in veterinary medicine is limited and has been performed with the aid of invasive external fixators,14 stereoradiographic methods,15,16 or cadaveric models.17 Furthermore, most studies focus primarily on the stifle joint. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports of 3-D kinematic analysis of the entire hind limb.
The purpose of the study recorded here was to evaluate a 3-D kinematic model of the hind limb developed by use of a JCS in dogs. Furthermore, techniques and algorithms commonly used for biomechanical studies, such as marker drop-out and skin movement errors during motion, were integrated into the model for advanced biomechanical analysis.
Joint coordinate system
Local coordinate system
Vicon MX03, Vicon Motion Systems Inc, Centennial, Colo.
LTC 0610 Series DinionXF CCD Color Camera, Bosch Security Systems Inc, Fairport, NY.
Peak Motus, version 9.0, Vicon Motion Systems Inc, Centennial, Colo.
MATLAB, version 7.0 R14, The Math Works Inc, Natick, Mass.
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Colborne GRInnes JFComerford EJ, et al. Distribution of power across the hind limb joints in Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1563–1571.
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Marker locations for kinematic modeling of the right hind limb of the dog.
|Pelvis||RIWG*||Right ilial wing|
|RITB||Right ischial tuberosity|
|LIWG||Left ilial wing|
|UITB||Left ischial tuberosity|
|Femur||RGT*||Right greater trochante|
|RLEP||Right lateral epicondyle|
|RMEP†||Right medial epicondyle|
|Tibia||RFH||Right fibular head|
|RLMA||Right lateral malleolus|
|RPTC*†||Right proximal tibial crest|
|RDTC†||Right distal tibial crest|
|RMMA†||Right medial malleolus|
|Foot||RHEE*||Right caudolateral calcaneus|
|RMP5||Right fifth metatarsophalangeal joint|
|RMP2||Right second metatarsophalangeal joint|
Origin of the LCS for specific segment.
Markers removed during acquisition of dynamic trials.