Apoptosis of ligamentous cells of the cranial cruciate ligament from stable stifle joints of dogs with partial cranial cruciate ligament rupture

Magali Krayer Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Magali Krayer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Ulrich Rytz Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Ulrich Rytz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Anna Oevermann Division of Clinical Research, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Anna Oevermann in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Marcus G. Doherr Division of Clinical Research, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Marcus G. Doherr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Franck Forterre Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Franck Forterre in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
,
Andreas Zurbriggen Division of Clinical Research, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by Andreas Zurbriggen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet
, and
David E. Spreng Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Search for other papers by David E. Spreng in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet

Click on author name to view affiliation information

Abstract

Objective—To describe the presence and amount of apoptotic ligamentous cells in different areas of partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (prCCLs) and to compare these findings with apoptosis of ligamentous cells in totally ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (trCCLs).

Animals—20 dogs with prCCLs and 14 dogs with trCCLs.

Procedures—Dogs with prCCLs or trCCLs were admitted to the veterinary hospital for stifle joint treatment. Biopsy specimens of the intact area of prCCLs (group A) and the ruptured area of prCCLs (group B) as well as specimens from trCCLs (group C) were harvested during arthroscopy. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) detection were used to detect apoptotic ligamentous cells by immunohistochemistry.

Results—No difference was found in the degree of synovitis or osteophytosis between prCCLs and trCCLs. No difference was found in degenerative changes in ligaments between groups A and B. A substantial amount of apoptotic cells could be found in > 90% of all stained slides. A correlation (rs = 0.71) was found between the number of caspase-3-and PARP-positive cells. No significant difference was found in the amount of apoptotic cells among the 3 groups. No significant correlation could be detected between the degree of synovitis and apoptotic cells or osteophyte production and apoptotic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of difference between the 3 groups indicates that apoptosis could be a factor in the internal disease process leading to CCL rupture and is not primarily a consequence of the acute rupture of the ligament.

Abstract

Objective—To describe the presence and amount of apoptotic ligamentous cells in different areas of partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (prCCLs) and to compare these findings with apoptosis of ligamentous cells in totally ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (trCCLs).

Animals—20 dogs with prCCLs and 14 dogs with trCCLs.

Procedures—Dogs with prCCLs or trCCLs were admitted to the veterinary hospital for stifle joint treatment. Biopsy specimens of the intact area of prCCLs (group A) and the ruptured area of prCCLs (group B) as well as specimens from trCCLs (group C) were harvested during arthroscopy. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) detection were used to detect apoptotic ligamentous cells by immunohistochemistry.

Results—No difference was found in the degree of synovitis or osteophytosis between prCCLs and trCCLs. No difference was found in degenerative changes in ligaments between groups A and B. A substantial amount of apoptotic cells could be found in > 90% of all stained slides. A correlation (rs = 0.71) was found between the number of caspase-3-and PARP-positive cells. No significant difference was found in the amount of apoptotic cells among the 3 groups. No significant correlation could be detected between the degree of synovitis and apoptotic cells or osteophyte production and apoptotic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of difference between the 3 groups indicates that apoptosis could be a factor in the internal disease process leading to CCL rupture and is not primarily a consequence of the acute rupture of the ligament.

Cranial cruciate disease in dogs is characterized by progressive degradation of the ligament, leading to its partial and, ultimately, total rupture. Most dogs affected with the disease are lame prior to total rupture, which is associated with an inflammatory arthritis.1,2 A prCCL has been described as a common clinical finding in dogs with CCLD. Biomechanically a partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament is defined by a disruption of the CCL in a stable stifle joint. Older reports indicate that 8% to 22% of dogs with CCLD are admitted to the veterinary hospital with prCCLs.3,4 Because arthroscopic evaluation of the stifle joint has become a routine procedure, a prCCL is diagnosed much more commonly Besides the classic signs of instability, indications to perform arthroscopy include stifle joint effusion, signs of local pain, and progressive unresponsive osteoarthritis. Identification of a prCCL has therefore become much more common in recent years and accounts for a diagnosis in > 80% of all dogs admitted to our veterinary hospital for arthroscopy of the stifle joint.

Evidence that an intrinsic mechanism in the ligament is responsible for the gradual degradation of the matrix in CCLD is increasing. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and collagenolytic cathepsin K may influence the integrity of the ligament.2 Results of 1 study5 indicate that overproduction of matrix-degrading me-talloproteinases is responsible for ligament destruction.5 Increases in inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide, might trigger matrix degradation through direct influence on either metalloproteinase production or cell viability.6,7.

We have recently shown the presence of a significant amount of apoptotic cells in ruptured canine CCLs.8 Programmed cell death has a definite role in osteoarthritis, as shown in several clinical and experimental studies9–12 in a variety of species. Generally, apoptosis is a form of cell death that does not produce a peri cellular reaction as seen with necrosis.13.

Normal tissue homeostasis requires a constant rate of cell death and new cell formation to maintain matrix production in a steady state. Ligamentous cells are surrounded by a comparatively thick layer of matrix, in which replacement of dead cells is uncertain. Indeed, replacement of dying ligamentous cells by new cells in the CCL has thus far not been demonstrated to our knowledge. We have recently shown that trCCLs have significantly more apoptotic cells than ligaments from normal joints.8 It is, however, difficult to study cellular events in trCCLs because biopsy specimens after total rupture of the ligament are influenced by the primary intrinsic event of CCLD as well as by the mechanical trauma resulting from instability and inflammation after ligament rupture, both of which can potentially cause some degree of cell death.

The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the presence of apoptosis in grossly intact and ruptured parts of prCCLs. On the basis of the fact that increased premature cell death could be responsible for decreased matrix production, we wanted to study the amount of apoptotic cells in the intact parts of prCCLs. Our hypothesis was that significant amounts of dead cells are already present in the still intact part of the ruptured ligament. Biopsy specimens of the CCL from dogs with prCCLs were therefore harvested during routine arthroscopy prior to surgical treatment of CCLD, and the degree and distribution of apoptosis were compared with biopsy specimens of the CCL from dogs with trCCLs.

Materials and Methods

Animals—The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the departmental review board for clinical and experimental animal studies. Client-owned dogs that were admitted to the veterinary hospital for arthroscopy of the stifle joint and subsequent treatment of CCLD were included in this study. Age, weight, sex, breed, and duration of lameness prior to surgery were recorded for each dog.

Biopsy specimen collection—Arthroscopic joint assessment and biopsy specimen collection were done by the same experienced investigator (UR). Dogs were prepared routinely for surgery of the stifle joint. The stifle joint was examined before surgery for instability by detection of a cranial drawer sign. Evidence of CCLD as well as the type of rupture were confirmed during arthroscopy. A 2.4-mm, 25° fore-oblique arthroscopea was used to guide a 2.7-mm miniature double-spoon forcepsb for biopsy specimen collection. The type of rupture (total or partial) and the degree of synovitis and osteophytosis were assessed during arthroscopy. Both variables were graded from 0 to 4, corresponding to normal, mild, moderate, or marked signs of synovitis or osteophytosis.

From prCCLs, biopsy specimens were taken within the macroscopically intact midregion of the ligament (group A) as well as from the ruptured area (group B). Biopsy specimens from trCCLs were taken within the ruptured area of the ligament (group C). Biopsy specimens had an approximate size of 1 to 2 mm.

All biopsy specimens were immediately placed in containers containing 4% paraformaldehyde and fixed overnight at 4°C. Cranial cruciate ligament biopsy specimens were then embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned, and mounted on glass slides. Multiple slides were created from each specimen for immunohistochemical and H&E staining.

Histologic evaluation—Cranial cruciate ligaments were assessed on H&E-stained slides by a board-certified pathologist (AO) who was blinded to the study protocol. Lesions were graded in accordance with the modified protocol described by Vasseur et al14 as grade 0 (no apparent structural changes), grade 1 (small solitary or multiple areas of degeneration, mild loss of ligamentous cells, small areas associated with a slight proliferation of resident ligamentous cells, loss of collagen fiber bundling, and mild chondroid metaplasia), grade 2 (moderate degenerative changes including ligamentous cell loss affecting large areas, moderate chondroid metaplasia, and loss of collagen fiber bundling), or grade 3 (severe degenerative changes including large areas with metaplastic chondrocytes, mineralization, and fragmented or separated collagen fibers).

Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry—Immunohistochemical staining specific for caspase-3 was performed according to a previously defined protocol.8 Briefly, tissue sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm and mounted on positive-laden glass slides. Sections were deparaffinized in xylene and rehydrated in graded alcohols. Antigen unmasking was performed by heating slides in a Coplin jar containing 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH, 6.0). Endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched by incubation with 3% H2O2 in methanol. After blocking with 5% goat serum in PBSS, slides were incubated with the primary antibody (rabbit anti-caspase-3 polyclonal antibodyc diluted with PBSS at 1:125) for 75 minutes at room temperature (approx 20°C). After rinsing, the presence of antigen was detected with a commercially available detection kitd containing 3-amino-9-ethyl carbazole as chromogen. For each batch of slides, negative control slides were handled and prepared in the same way as the other slides, apart from the omission of the primary antibody. Sections of normal canine lymph nodes were used as positive controls.

The stained tissue slides were assessed under light microscopy by 2 independent blinded observers (MK and AO) who graded the slides on the basis of the number of caspase-positive apoptotic cells as follows: grade 0, < 5% caspase-positive apoptotic cells (negative apoptotic signal); grade 1, 5% to < 10% caspase-positive apoptotic cells (low apoptotic signal); grade 2, 10% to < 25% caspase-positive apoptotic cells (moderate apoptotic signal); grade 3, 25% to < 50% caspase-positive apoptotic cells (high apoptotic signal); or grade 4, 50% to 100% caspase-positive apoptotic cells (very high apoptotic signal).

PARPimmunohistochemistry—A second immuno-histochemical analysis for apoptosis was performed to confirm results obtained with caspase immunohistochemistry The applied antibody was a polyclonal antibody directed against the 85-kd caspase-cleaved fragment of human PARRe Initially sections of normal canine lymph nodes known for the presence of positive apoptotic signals were used to demonstrate PARP-positive signals. Briefly the paraffin-embedding medium was removed in xylene, and the sections were re-hydrated in graded alcohols. Slides were placed first in distilled water, then in PBSS. Antigen unmasking was achieved by incubating in 0.2% Triton X-100f in PBSS for 5 minutes at room temperature. Slides were subsequently washed in PBSS. Sections were blocked with 5% goat serum in PBSS for 20 minutes. After removing the blocking solution, but without any washing procedure, the primary antibody was put on the tissue sections and incubated overnight at 4°C. The antibody solution used was a polyclonal anti-PARP p85 fragment antibody diluted 1:50 in PBSS. After rinsing in PBSS, slides were treated with a commercially available detection kit,d which uses a biotinylated goat anti-rabbit-mouse as the secondary antibodyg After an incubation time of 10 minutes, slides were rinsed with PBSS. Subsequently, tissue sections were incubated for 10 minutes with streptavidin conjugated with horseradish peroxidaseh and then washed in PBSS. The last incubation step required a 3-amino-9-ethyl carbazole-H2O2 substrate solution,i closely monitored under light microscopy until a distinct positive signal appeared on the positive control tissue. Slides were rinsed in distilled water and counter-colored for 30 seconds in hematoxy-lin. After a final washing step in distilled water, slides were mounted for evaluation.j Negative control slides were handled and prepared in the same way as the other slides, but the primary antibody was omitted. Stained slides were graded in the same way as the caspase-labeled slides.

Statistical analysis—Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed by use of a software program.11 For some ligaments, multiple biopsy specimens and thus measurements were available. In those instances, a mean score of the apoptotic cell number (outcome) was calculated. Demographic data by dog (age and weight) and for the outcome measures were tested for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and normal probability plots. As most were not normally distributed, demographic data were described as medians and ranges and the outcome measures as medians and 95% confidence intervals (with exact confidence intervals based on the percentiles of the distribution). A nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test for significant differences between the unpaired scores of group A versus C and group B versus C, whereas a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the (paired within dogs) scores of group A and B. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs) was used to detect significant correlation between the different outcome measures. For all comparisons, values of P < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results

Twenty dogs with a prCCL and 14 dogs with a trCCL were examined during the study. No significant difference was found between the groups for age, weight, sex, duration of lameness, and arthroscopic degree of synovitis and osteophytosis (Table 1). Osteo-phytosis correlated with the degree of synovitis (rs = 0.58; P < 0.001). Dogs with a clearly positive drawer sign before surgery were all confirmed to have a trCCL. A negative drawer sign was observed in dogs with ar-throscopically confirmed prCCLs. All dogs were treated by arthroscopic debridement of the joint followed by tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Table 1—

Median (range) values of dogs with prCCLs (n = 20) and trCCLs (14).

VariablesprCCLtrCCL
Age (mo)56 (23–132)76 (14–133)
Weight (kg)37 (28–62)32 (23–55)
Sexually intact male*64
Castrated male*31
Sexually intact female*13
Spayed female*106
Duration of signs (m)3 (0–30)1.5 (0–24)
Synovitis (grades 1–4)3 (1–4)3 (2–4)
Osteophytosis (grades 1–4)1.5 (0–3)2 (1–3)

Actual number of dogs.

Graded from 0 to 4, corresponding to normal, mild, moderate, or marked signs, respectively, of synovitis or osteophytosis.

Various stages of degenerative changes were observed in the H&E-stained sections in trCCL specimens as well as in intact and ruptured parts of prCCLs. These included loss of ligamentous cells, proliferation of surviving ligamentous cells, chondroid metaplasia, loss of the primary collagen bundling, and tearing of axial fibers. The cell density, amount of chondroid metaplasia, and structural changes in the matrix were similar in all 3 groups. Hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition were observed in all groups, with more lesions in ruptured areas (Figures 1 and 2). Median values for the histologic grade of degeneration were 3 (range, 1 to 3) in the ruptured area and 2 (range, 1 to 3) in the intact area of prCCLs, with no significant (P = 0.18) difference between the 2 groups.

Figure 1—
Figure 1—

Photomicrograph of a section of a trCCL of a dog. Notice the secondary changes following rupture, including proliferated granulation tissue with numerous cross-sections of capillaries, small hemorrhages (asterisk), and hemosiderin deposition (arrows). H&E stain; bar = 50 μm.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 69, 5; 10.2460/ajvr.69.5.625

Figure 2—
Figure 2—

Photomicrographs of a section of the ruptured (A) and intact (B) parts of a prCCL of a dog. Notice that the large acellular areas are the result of loss of ligamentous cells, loss of normal fiber bundling, and cartilaginous metaplasia on both sections. H&E stain; bar = 50 μm.

Citation: American Journal of Veterinary Research 69, 5; 10.2460/ajvr.69.5.625

Although the amount of detected apoptotic cells was slightly higher with PARP immunostaining than caspase-3 staining, results of both methods were comparable and correlate well (rs = 0.71; P < 0.001). A significant amount of apoptotic cells could be found in 91% of caspase-3-and in 95% of PARP-stained biopsy specimens. No significant differences were observed between groups with regards to apoptotic rate on the basis of caspase-3 (group A vs B, P = 0.36; group A vs C, P = 0.35; and group B vs C, P = 0.76) or PARP (group A vs B, P = 0.41; group A vs C, P = 0.8; and group B vs C, P = 0.68) immunohistochemistry results (Table 2). Fusiform fibroblasts as well as chondroid cells had evidence of apoptotic activity. Apoptotic cells had a slightly focal (65%) distribution in the examined slides. No significant correlation was found between the degree of synovitis and apoptotic ligamentous cells on the basis of caspase-3 (rs = −0.12; P = 0.32) or PARP (rs = −0.19; P = 0.13) immunohistochemistry results. Also, no significant correlation was found between osteophyte production and apoptotic ligamentous cells on the basis of caspase-3 (rs = −0.01; P = 0.89) or PARP (rs = 0.01; P = 0.88) immunohistochemistry results

Table 2—

Median (95% confidence interval) value for caspase- and PARP-positive cells in biopsy specimens of the intact (n = 20) and ruptured (20) parts of prCCL and trCCL (14).

Immunohistochemistry results*Nonruptured part of prCCLIntact part of prCCLtrCCL
Caspase (grades 1–4)2 (1–3)2 (2–3)3.25 (0.3–4)
PARP (grades 1–4)3 (2–4)3 (2.5–4)3 (1.5–4)

Grade 0, < 5% positive cells (negative apoptotic signal). Grade 1, 5% to < 10% positive cells (low apoptotic signal). Grade 2, 10% to < 25% positive cells (moderate apoptotic signal). Grade 3, 25% to < 50% positive cells (high apoptotic signal). Grade 4, 50% to 100% positive cells (very high apoptotic signal).

Discussion

Previous studies on biochemical alterations in ruptured ligaments have often been problematic because specimen collection is usually performed intraoperatively following total rupture of the ligament. Differentiation between alterations resulting from the inciting cause of CCLD and those from the trauma of disruption is therefore often speculative. The novel approach of biopsy specimen collection under arthroscopic guidance allows precise and selective retrieval of specimens in macroscopically nontraumatized areas. Only sparse information is available in the scientific literature on partial ruptures of the CCL. To our knowledge, histo-logic studies comparing partial and total rupture have not been previously published.

Results of the present study indicate that the grossly intact part of prCCLs is affected by similar degenerative changes as the ruptured part. The grade of degenerative changes is comparable to published results of totally ruptured ligaments.14 Additionally, in sections from ruptured areas, acute hemorrhage, hemosiderin deposition, and granulation tissue were observed, consistent with acute mechanical trauma. Histologic evaluation, however, was considered difficult because the small sample size precluded stretching and orientation to provide longitudinal sections.

Results of a previous study15 indicate that inflammation is more severe in stifle joints with prCCLs than in joints with trCCLs on the basis of synovial fluid WBC counts. Other studies, however, could not find an influence of the CCL grade of disruption on interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide concentrations in synovial fluid.16 We did not evaluate synovial membrane histologically in our study; however, we had no indication of a difference in the degree of inflammation between trCCLs and prCCLs from the intraoperative gross evaluation.

In a previous report,8 we demonstrated that ruptured CCLs had significantly more apoptotic cells than did intact ligaments by use of the same protocol with caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. In that study, median values of 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0 to 0.5) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 0 to 3) were found for the degree of apoptosis in normal and ruptured ligaments, respectively (P = 0.037). In the present study, we confirmed that apoptosis is an important form of cell death in ligaments of dogs with CCLD by use of PARP as well as caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Cleavage of PARP has been found to be a sensitive variable to study early cell death in a number of cell death models.17 Detection of the cleaved fragment of PARP signifies activation of caspase 3-like activity.

Initially sections of normal canine lymph nodes known for the presence of positive apoptotic signals were used to demonstrate PARP-positive signals. Because PARP is a nuclear enzyme, its fragments would at least transiently remain in the nucleus, only leaking out in the cytoplasm.17,18 Intense nuclear positive signals were found as well as light-positive cytoplasmic signals in stained lymphocytes.

Tissues with high rates of physiologic cell replacement, such as the intestinal mucosa, have an apoptosis rate in the range of 8 cells/colonic crypt19 or 3% of gastric mucosal cells.20 Assuming that the physiologic turnover of chondrocytes and ligamentous cells is slower than that of intestinal tissue, the apoptotic rate of up to 50% of all cells in affected ligaments is high. The reason for this high percentage is not yet clear. Furthermore, results of this study indicate that grossly intact areas of prCCLs have a high amount of apoptotic cells. We conclude that apoptosis is present prior to mechanical disruption of the ligament and therefore most probably not a consequence of the acute trauma of the rupture itself.

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that is induced by a tightly regulated intracellular pathway, concluding in nuclear chromatin condensation and inter-nucleosomal digestion of DNA. It can be distinguished from necrosis morphologically and biochemically.

Apoptosis can be activated mainly by 2 molecular mechanisms. The extrinsic death receptor pathway leads to apoptosis by binding of ligands (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, Fas ligand, and tumor necrosis factor) to receptors belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family, such as CD95 (ie, Fas). This, in turn, activates the intracellular caspase cascade. The intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway is initiated by an external cytotoxic stress (eg, drugs or irradiation). The critical step in the mitochondrial pathway is the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, leading to activation of the caspase cascade.21–23.

Detection and manipulation of programmed cell death in joint disease have been of growing interest in the last few years. Removal of dead cells is usually carried out by phagocytosis, and cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphates, present in the epiligamentous area and in the core region of ruptured CCLs, are possibly derived from activated macrophages.2,24 Further studies, however, are needed to demonstrate whether tartrate-resistant acid phosphate-positive cells have phagocytic activity to clear dead ligamentous cells. Another possible way for removal and transport of waste matter is via pinocytotic vesicles that have been recently identified in canine CCL capillary endothelium.25 If, however, inadequate cell debridement is present, investigations are warranted to show whether a detrimental effect on ligament functionality results. Inhibition of normal anatomic remodeling or activation of inflammation could be a consequence of increased amounts of dead cells remaining within the ligament.

Information on the induction of cell death in articular tissues is limited and has concentrated on the response to mechanical injury. It has been proposed that cell death in response to wounding is a combination of necrosis and apoptosis.26 Injury-induced chondrocyte apoptosis can decrease glycosaminoglycan synthesis as well as increase gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases, which link mechanical injury to cartilage matrix degradation.27,28 Similar studies have not been done with ligaments. However, results of our study indicate that direct trauma might not be the only cause of ligamentous cell apoptosis in CCLD of dogs; on the contrary, apoptosis might play a role in the pathogenesis of CCL rupture. Whether this role is critical for the rupture or just a by-product or consequence of micro-injury to the ligament matrix remains unclear.

Apoptosis can be chemically inhibited to increase cell viability, which is not the case for necrosis. How cells die is, therefore, of great importance. Prevention of apoptosis by caspase inhibition in cartilage has been shown to significantly affect glycosaminoglycan synthesis, restore matrix production in injured explant cultures, and maintain cell viability close to that observed before injuryl,m This chondroprotective effect was also proven with an in vivo model of posttraumatic arthritis.27 Similar studies have not yet been performed on ligaments.

Treatment of partial and complete CCL rupture is similar and has concentrated on mechanical correction of joint instability, including recent techniques such a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy28 as well as older treatment strategies such as total debridement of the remnant ligament in a prCCL followed by an extra- or intracapsular procedure.29.

The function of the remaining part of the ligament in dogs is certainly not clear. It has also been proposed that most partial ruptures of the CCL will progress to a total rupture of the ligament, suggesting an ongoing internal process of micro-injury leading to total rupture of the ligament. Results of the present study corroborate this idea in that we could detect no significant differences between intact and ruptured parts of prCCLs. Inflammation, preceding grossly visible ligament disruption in the stifle joint, has been shown to lead to disorganization of the normal cellular pattern as well as loss of normal fiber orientation in experimentally affected rabbits.30 Increased amounts of inflammatory cells in canine CCLs, compared with human anterior cruciate ligaments, have been demonstrated and indicate that human anterior cruciate ligament rupture commonly seen after trauma has a different etiology than CCLD in dogs.31 Increased induction of apoptosis through an inflammatory trigger could lead to an imbalance in matrix morphology followed by CCL rupture. Additional studies to clarify the role of apoptosis in CCLD are justified.

ABBREVIATIONS

prCCL

Partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament

CCLD

Cranial cruciate ligament disease

trCCL

Totally ruptured cranial cruciate ligament

PARP

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

a.

CCD-Endocam camera, 2.4 mm, 25° fore-oblique arthroscope, Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen-D, Germany.

b.

Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen-D, Germany.

c.

Anti-active caspase-3 pAB, Promega Corp, Baar, Switzerland.

d.

LSAB/HRP ChemMate detection kit, Peroxidase AEC rabbit/mouse, K5003, DakoCytomation, Baar, Switzerland.

e.

Anti-PARP p85 fragment pAB, Promega Corp, Dubendorf, Switzerland.

f.

Nr 3051.2, Carl Roth GMBH, Karlsruhe, Germany.

g.

Bottle A, ChemMate detection kit, Peroxidase/AEC Rabbit/Mouse, K5003, DakoCytomation, Baar, Switzerland.

h.

Bottle B, ChemMate detection kit, Peroxidase/AEC Rabbit/Mouse, K5003, DakoCytomation, Baar, Switzerland.

i.

Bottle C, ChemMate detection kit, Peroxidase/AEC Rabbit/Mouse, K5003, DakoCytomation, Baar, Switzerland.

j.

Glycergel, c0563, DakoCytomation, Baar, Switzerland.

k.

NCSS, 2007, NCSS, Kaysville, Utah. Available at: www.ncss.com. Accessed Mar 4, 2007.

l.

D'Lima D, Bergula A, Colwell C, et al. Prevention of chondrocyte apoptosis after injury restores matrix synthesis. 48th Annu Meet Orthop Res Soc 2002;poster No. 0430.

m.

Bergula A, Chen PC, Colwell C, et al. Effect of caspase inhibition on gene expression after cartilage injury. 50th Annu Meet Orthop Res Soc 2004;poster No. 0617.

References

  • 1.

    Muir P, Schaefer SL, Manley PA, et al. Expression of immune response genes in the stifle joint of dogs with oligoarthritis and degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2007;119:214221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Muir P, Hayashi K, Manley PA, et al. Evaluation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K in ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:12791284.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Scavelli TD, Schrader SC, Matthiesen DT, et al. Partial rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament of the stifle in dogs: 25 cases (1982–1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:11351138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Ralphs SC, Whitney WO. Arthroscopic evaluation of menisci in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament injuries: 100 cases (1999–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:16011604.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Amiel D, Billinges E, Harwood F. Collagenase activity in anterior cruciate ligament: protective role of the synovial sheath. J Appl Physiol 1990;69:902906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Everts V, van der Zee E, Creemers L, et al. Phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of collagen, its role in turnover and remodeling. Histochem J 1996;28:229245.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Murakami H, Shinomiya N, Kikuchi T, et al. Upregulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase plays a key role in early apoptosis after anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Orthop Res 2006;24:15211534.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gyger O, Botteron C, Doherr M, et al. Detection and distribution of apoptotic cell death in normal and diseased canine cranial cruciate ligaments. Vet J 2007;174:371377.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Diaz-Gallego L, Prieto JG, Coronel P, et al. Apoptosis and nitric oxide in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rabbit after hyaluronic acid treatment. J Orthop Res 2005;23:13701376.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    D'Lima DD, Hashimoto S, Chen PC, et al. Human chondrocyte apoptosis in response to mechanical injury. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001;9:712719.

  • 11.

    Kim DY, Taylor HW, Moore RM, et al. Articular chondrocyte apoptosis in equine osteoarthritis. Vet J 2003;166:5257.

  • 12.

    Pelletier JP, Jovanovic DV, Lascau-Coman V, et al. Selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduces progression of experimental osteoarthritis in vivo: possible link with the reduction in chondrocyte apoptosis and caspase 3 level. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:12901299.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ellis RE, Yuan JY, Horvitz HR, et al. Mechanisms and functions of cell death. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1991;7:663698.

  • 14.

    Vasseur PB, Pool RR, Arnoczky SP, et al. Correlative biomechanical and histologic study of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:18421854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Griffin DW, Vasseur PB. Synovial fluid analysis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1992;28:277281.

  • 16.

    Hay CW, Chu Q, Budsberg SC, et al. Synovial fluid interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide values in dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:10271032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Duriez PJ, Shah GM. Cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: a sensitive parameter to study cell death. Biochem Cell Biol 1997;75:337349.

  • 18.

    Adachi S, Cross AR, Babior BM, et al. Bcl-2 and the outer mitochondrial membrane in the inactivation of cytochrome c during Fas-mediated apoptosis. J Biol Chem 1997;272:2187821882.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hall PA, Coates PJ, Ansari B, et al. Regulation of cell number in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: the importance of apoptosis. J Cell Sci 1994;107:35693577.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Szabo I, Tarnawski AS. Apoptosis in the gastric mucosa: molecular mechanisms, basic and clinical implications. J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;51:315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Boatright KM, Salvesen GS. Mechanisms of caspase activation. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2003;15:725731.

  • 22.

    Chen M, Wang J. Initiator caspases in apoptosis signaling pathways. Apoptosis 2002;7:313319.

  • 23.

    Krammer PH. CD95's deadly mission in the immune system. Nature 2000;407:789795.

  • 24.

    Muir P, Schamberger GM, Manley PA, et al. Localization of cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in synovium and cranial cruciate ligament in dogs with cruciate disease. Vet Surg 2005;34:239246.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kobayashi S, Baba H, Uchida K, et al. Microvascular system of anterior cruciate ligament in dogs. J Orthop Res 2006;24:15091520.

  • 26.

    D'Lima DD, Hashimoto S, Chen PC, et al. Impact of mechanical trauma on matrix and cells. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2001;391:S90S99.

  • 27.

    D'Lima D, Hermida J, Hashimoto S, et al. Caspase inhibitors reduce severity of cartilage lesions in experimental osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:18141821.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Slocum B, Slocum TD. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy for the repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993;23:777795.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Piermattei DL, Flo GL. The stifle joint. In: Brinker WO, Piermattei DL, Flo GL, eds. Handbook of small animal orthopedics and fracture repair. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1997;516580.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Goldberg VM, Burstein A, Dawson M. The influence of an experimental immune synovitis on the failure mode and strength of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1982;64:900906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Barrett JG, Hao Z, Graf BK, et al. Inflammatory changes in ruptured canine cranial and human anterior cruciate ligaments. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:20732080.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 54 0 0
Full Text Views 381 224 38
PDF Downloads 162 99 5
Advertisement