The prevalence and type (ie, acute, delayed, or systemic) of contrast medium–induced reactions in people depend on the type of contrast medium administered.1–5 Ionic-iodinated contrast media used for computed tomography are more likely to cause acute and systemic reactions than NIC media in people and dogs.6,7 Reports2,8 describing the frequency of acute reaction to GD contrast media used for magnetic resonance imaging vary. Although previously thought to be uncommon, renal adverse effects have now been described in people.9
In a large retrospective study,7 the incidence of hemodynamic alterations associated with the IV contrast medium administration in anesthetized dogs was described as being relatively common in comparison with people. In that study, changes in HR and PSBP were less frequent in dogs receiving NIC or GD contrast media than in those receiving an IIC medium. No apparent association was found between contrast medium administration and alterations in serum biochemical variables (ie, serum total bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine concentrations), although the number of dogs assessed for the serum biochemical variables was low.7 To our knowledge, no such study has been performed in cats. Thus, the purpose of the study reported here was to determine the frequency and types of hemodynamic alterations associated with the IV administration of contrast media in a large number of anesthetized cats. Acute changes in HR and PSBP in response to contrast medium administration were chosen as hemodynamic variables for evaluation.10 The prevalence of reactions in cats was compared among those receiving IIC, NIC, and GD contrast media. It was hypothesized that IIC media would result in more frequent and severe alterations in hemodynamic variables in cats than NIC and GD contrast media.
Peak systolic blood pressure
Magnevist, Berlex Imaging, Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
Conray 400, Mallinckrodt Inc, St Louis, Mo.
Isovue-200, Bracco Diagnostics Inc, Princeton, NJ.
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Li A, Wong CS, Wong MK, et al. Acute adverse reactions to magnetic resonance contrast media—gadolinium chelates. Br J Radiol 2006;79:368–371.
Katayama H, Yamaguchi K, Kozuka T, et al. Adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic contrast media. A report from the Japanese Committee on the Safety of Contrast Media. Radiology 1990;175:621–628.
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Pollard RE, Puchalski SM, Pascoe PJ. Hemodynamic and serum biochemical alterations associated with intravenous administration of three types of contrast media in anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:1268–1273.
Goldstein HA, Kashanian FK, Blumetti RF, et al. Safety assessment of gadopentetate dimeglumine in US clinical trials. Radiology 1990;174:17–23.
Marckmann P, Skov L, Rossen K, et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: suspected causative role of gadodiamide used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2359–2362.
Kurabayashi T, Ida M, Fukayama H, et al. Adverse reactions to nonionic iodine in contrast-enhanced computed tomography: usefulness of monitoring vital signs. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1998;27:199–202.
Namasivayam S, Kalra MK, Torres WE, et al. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a primer for radiologists. Emerg Radiol 2006;12:210–215.
Waybill MM, Waybill PN. Contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity: identification of patients at risk and algorithms for prevention. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:3–9.
Pereira GG, Larsson MH, Yamaki FL, et al. Effects of propofol on the electrocardiogram and systolic blood pressure of healthy cats pre-medicated with acepromazine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004;31:235–238.
Assem ES, Bray K, Dawson P. The release of histamine from human basophils by radiological contrast agents. Br J Radiol 1983;56:647–652.
Baxter AB, Lazarus SC, Brasch RC. In vitro histamine release induced by magnetic resonance imaging and iodinated contrast media. Invest Radiol 1993;28:308–312.
Kuo PH, Kanal E, Abu-Alfa AK, et al. Gadolinium-based MR contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Radiology 2007;242:647–649.