Epidural migration of new methylene blue in 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 2% mepivacaine solution following injection into the first intercoccygeal space in foal cadavers and anesthetized foals undergoing laparoscopy

Jennifer L. Lansdowne Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
Present address is the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

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 DVM, MSc
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Carolyn L. Kerr Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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 DVM, DVSc, PhD
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Ludovic P. Bouré Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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 DMV, MS, DES
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Simon G. Pearce Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
Present address is AO Research Institute, Clavadelerstrasse, CH-7270 Davos Platz, Switzerland.

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 BVSc, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals.

Animals—19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals.

Procedure—Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 10o headdown position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured.

Results—Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals. ( Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:1324–1329)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals.

Animals—19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals.

Procedure—Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 10o headdown position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured.

Results—Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals. ( Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:1324–1329)

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